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2017
«East West» Association for Advanced Studies and Higher Education GmbH
European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences
2017
ISSN 2414-2344
Editor-in-chief
Maier Erika, Germany, Doctor of Philology
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Abdulkasimov Ali, Uzbekistan, Doctor of Geography
Adieva Aynura Abduzhalalovna, Kyrgyzstan, Doctor of Economics
Arabaev Cholponkul Isaevich, Kyrgyzstan, Doctor of Law
Balasanian Marianna, Georgia, Doctor of Philology
Barlybaeva Saule Hatiyatovna, Kazakhstan, Doctor of History
Busch Petra, Austria, Doctor of Economics
Cherniavska Olena, Ukraine, Doctor of Economics
Garagonich Vasily Vasilyevich, Ukraine, Doctor of History
Jansarayeva Rima, Kazakhstan, Doctor of Law
Karabalaeva Gulmira, Kyrgyzstan, Doctor of Education
Kiseleva Anna Alexandrovna, Russia, Ph.D. of Political Sciences
Khoutyz Zaur, Russia, Doctor of Economics
Khoutyz Irina, Russia, Doctor of Philology
Kocherbaeva Aynura Anatolevna, Kyrgyzstan, Doctor of Economics
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Massaro Alessandro, Italy, Doctor of Philosophy
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Suleymanova Rima, Russia, Doctor of History
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Typology of medieval monuments of shirvan (the
Section 1. Archaeology
DOI: hp://dx.doi.org/10.20534/EJHSS-17-2-3-6
Jafarova Elmira,
Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences
Institute of Archeology and Etnography
Baku, Azerbaijan
E-mail: shirvan
[email protected]
Typology of medieval monuments of shirvan
Abstract:
Medieval archaeological monuments of Shirvan are divided by a typology on: selements, burials,
architecturally archaeological monuments, epigraphic monuments and monuments of underwater archeology.
Selements represent the most numerous group of archaeological monuments. e medieval cities, selements
and all complex of the constructions which are on their territory (public constructions, houses).
e selementis the most widespread type of medieval monuments of Shirvan. ere are rural selements as
mountains, foothills, plain, coastal located on the hills and forest array.
e architectural and archeological monuments are the largest groupitis the citadels, religious complexes, urban
strengthening, palace constructions, public constructions.
Fortication monuments citadels, fortresses, defensive and castle works (the Maiden Tower, fortresses. Tow
ers are divided by features of an archeologisation on disappeared, destroyed and remained.
Religious monuments are the mosque and minarets, khanagahs. Religious sites oen combine elements of
epigraphy.
e monuments of underwater archaeology are locatedin the coastal zoneinclude the remains of selements, at
the moment are mainly known the objects of underwater archeology BandovanI, BandovanII.
Keywords:
Typology, Shirvan, seiments, religious monuments, medieval city.
Medieval archaeological monuments of Shirvan are
divided by a typology on: selements, burials, architectur
ally archaeological monuments, epigraphic monuments
and monuments of underwater archeology.
Selements represent the most numerous group of archae
ological monuments. e medieval cities, selements and all
complex of the constructions which are on their territory (pub
lic constructions, houses). Medieval city of Shirvan Baku,
Shamakha, Shabran, Gabala, Derbent reect genesis, charac
teristics of the medieval cities, economic and social structure.
Research center of the medieval Baku Icheri Sheher
(IX–XVII centuries) discovered wall rectangular houses with
courtyards, there were aperturesin the walls for windows, tan
doors, hearths, an economic construction, coins and numer
ous artifacts [4, 370].
Medieval city of Shamakha (VIII–XVII centuries) has
beeninvestigated on the small areas of 15–300sq.
m. because
of dense urban development. Streets, the bases of houses of
public and cult buildings, holes, wells, a water supply system,
poer’s furnaces, the sewerage and numerous archaeological
artifacts have been opened and explored [13, 31; 4, 371].
e medieval city of Shabran (VII–XVIII centuries.) on
the territory of which there were discovered the remains of a
defensive structure, public building, water supply, sewerage
system, tandoors, cobblestone streets, brick-lined wells, and
numerous artifacts of ceramic, metal and glass [8, 35; 4, 371].
e medieval selement of Gabalais located on two hills
Selbir (IX–X centuries.) and Gala (VIII–XIII cc.). ere
were residential and farm buildings, water, pavement oors,
hearths, tandoor, wells, coins and complex archaeological arti
factsidentiedin Selbire. And there was a wall of the great riv
er of rubble and burnt bricks and tu blocks, a large building,
the remains of dwellings, tandoor, hearths, pits, poery kiln
and archeological artifactsinvestigatedin Gale. It was applied
a stone and the burned brick on limy solution at construction
of city defensive works. Floors of rooms clay or are paved by
the burned brick (35
5cm) [4, 68].
e selementis the most widespread type of medieval
monuments of Shirvan, has beeninvestigatedin Shamakhi, Guba,
Khachmaz, Shabran, Gabala, Khizi and Absheron peninsula.
ere are rural selements as mountains, foothills, plain,
coastal located on the hills and forest array [1, 354].
Section 1. Archaeology
e rural selement GalayXudat (Guba, mountainous) is
characteristic existence ofvarious constructions of theIX–XV
centuries. e selement of Serkertepe (Hachmaz, plains) dif
fersin construction type with an economic court yard. Vari
ous structures and the hearths have been found on the sele
ment of Chilegir [8, 57].
e rural selement of Seyidli (coastal) is dated
theVIII–XV centuries, occupied the area more than four
hectares, power of an occupation layer reached 1,2m. e
remains of the structures put from a river cobble-stone and
the hearths are found on the selement [8, 56].
e architectural and archeological monuments are the larg
est groupitis the citadels, religious complexes, urban strengthen
ing, palace constructions, public constructions [11, 78].
Fortication monuments citadels, fortresses (Gu
listan, Bughurd), defensive and castle works (the Maiden
Tower, fortresses Mardakan, Ramana, Nardaran, Gala).
Towers are divided by features of an archeologisation on dis
appeared, destroyed and remained.
e Maiden Tower (Baku) the height of the tower–
28diameter– 16.5the thickness of the walls– 5.1m the
boom (on the right oor) and 4.15m at the top. e
outside to the height of 12m, the surface of the walls of the
buress and the toweris smooth [16, 10].
Above thatit begins a projecting stone corbels and al
ternating with them grooves, rings surrounding a cylindrical
tower and buresses on all sidesin the form of a hoop.
e top part of the monument to the headliner, surrounds
the entire 31such corbels and the appropriate number of
grooves, giving him special architectural beautyin the sense
of the game shadows. Found during archaeological excava
tions of ceramic artifacts belong to theXI–XII centuries [16].
e fortressin the Baku bay -construction “Bayil stones”
is called caravanserai. e constructionisin the form of the
wrong extended polygon, about 200meters long, with a width
about 34meters. All joints of the parties are connected by tow
ers ofvarious size, walls and towers are destroyed almost half.
Some towers have kept the remains of doorways and chan
nels for a bar. A part ofintermediate semi-towers served as
buresses for walls to the site where the tower adjoined. e
found stones withinscriptionsinside the building belongs to
theXIII century [5, 12; 2, 86].
Towersin Mardakan the round tower (1203–1204)
consists of 3oors; interoor overlappings stone, in the
form of domes with an openingin the center. e junction
between oorsis by dint of a stone ladder. e top part of a
toweris blocked by a stone dome. On a circle of all top of a
tower the machicolations outside decorated with a geometri
cal ornament are arranged; an eight-pointed star with a four-
blade cross. e toweris put from a local stone, an external
laying from the stones which are well adjusted to each other
with the processed surface [15, 16].
e squared serf tower with semi-towers on corners,
has been surrounded with a forticationin Mardakan. e
excavations have dened outlines of an external castle wall
with theindication of all towers and main gate. e surface of
the yardis a solid rock, wherethevarious economic pits are
cut down [16, 15].
e rst oor of a tower has been blocked by the lancet
arch. e thickness of the wallsin some places are wooden
pads. e window opening of a northern wall of the third
ooris partially blocked by round bars [15, 45].
Ramana Castle served as defensive and observation post.
e castle consists of a central tower the donjon and
surrounding ramparts, the central tower of a quadrangular
shape, the corners are completed with semi-towers.
e thickness of the walls of the ground oor of 1m 90cm,
width of the aperture of 1m 10cm, height at the entrance 1m
46cm, a depth of 2m 16cm. e oor on the ground oor
-surface of the rock on which the whole structure, on the op
posite door side (north) oor had a signicant bias. e third
and fourth oors were covered with wooden beams. Last oor
tile overlaps the lancet arch. e second oor of the castle
was a rectangle 6cmx 5m 4m 53cmin the plan. Increasing
theinternal pad towerin comparison to the rst oor, was due
to thinning of the walls of the second oor. Within the walls
of the second, third and fourth oors were window-slits serf
character: outside the narrow gap of 15–20cm with a large
extensioninto the 65–70cm. e overlap window openings
at, the walls of the tower were plasteredinside, hearths ar
ranged on the oor [15, 71].
Gulustan fortress (Shamakhi) occupies the entire top part
of the mountain slopes, has a length of about 450m, with a
width of the top of the 30–150m. e entire upper oor was
surrounded by mountains thick wall of jagged stone, lime.
Inside and outside walls and the towers were covered with
stone net teskey. Archaeological Complex Gulustan fortress
consists of fortications, towers, residential buildings, water
supply systems. e fortress consisted of strengthening the
citadels, towers, round and square shape. e fortress was sup
plied with water through an underground water supply. Water
supply turned up of poer’s knees and was laid directlyinto
the ground. It was managed to open only for a few meters.
Residential buildings rectangular, the walls of the premises
(except corridor) areinternal and external, double [13, 47].
Religious monuments are the mosque and minarets
(Sundi, Minaret Sinig gala, Juma Mosque, Lezgi Mosque)
khanegah (Pirsaatin Goylarvillage). Early Muslim mosques
are signicantly dierent from the later architectural plan, a
simple decor and furnishings and preservation, many of them
were destroyed and almost did not survive. Religious sites of
ten combine elements of epigraphy [3, 65].
e excavations of the medieval Muslim place of wor
shipcarried outin Derbent under the namesin Arabic Bab
al-Kiyaam, turk.
 Kiyamat-kapi, pers.
 Dar and Kiyamat
(“Resurrection Gates”, “Gates of Judgment Day”). e location
of thisiconic monumentis near the tower N 50of the north
ern city defensive wall (from the outside, outside the medieval
shakhristan). It was found here during the construction of
“blessed the building” during the reign of EmirIsfandiyar.
Typology of medieval monuments of shirvan (the
Here the same were found four ArabicinscriptionsXI–XIII
centuries: One of them consists of one word, displayed by the
ku-Masjid “Mosque”, second wrien by theitalic naskh
and represents the phrase of the believing person-suya.
Khanegah complex on the river Pirsagat consists of a
mosque building with adjoining small rooms and the tomb of
Pir Hussein, a minaret and small spaces. Minaret khanegah re
fers to the Shirvan group. e minaret has preserved a number
of multiinscriptions and buildings date (1255) e mosque
was built of hewn stone, covered with ogive, the ooris cov
ered with stone slabs. Alter (Mehrab) was decorated with ar
tistic carvings withinscriptions “blossoming ku” and oral
ornaments with colored tiles. 11 meter on-panel frieze
decorated with tiles covered with golden chandeliers, painted
with cobalt and turquoise-green tones. e complexis sur
rounded by walls. Outside the walls thereis a caravanserai
covered with stone arches [3, 23].
e complex alsoincludes: 1) the remains of buildings
from the underground room, 2) a crumbling mausoleum, 3)
the selement and 4) a necropolis. Underground space rep
resented a suite of three parts. e walls are preserved to a
height of 0.4–1.0m. e second part of the entrance repre
sentedvaulted 2,6h1,65m size room, stretched on the entrance
axis. Preserved to a height of 3m, and the top three rows of
masonry form the beginning of thevault. Over the opening
retained a number of walls of masonry, extending to the north
and forming a retaining wall. e third part of an entrance
the narrow three-meter course (width of 0,5m) reveed with
a stone 1,7m high. e underground room with an arch en
trance 1,6m high has the crosswise form, overlappingsvaulted,
in corners they pass with sails and a at ceiling [6, 26].
e monument like khanegahin thevillage of Goylar,
17km to the South from Shamakhi, is known as Pir-Mar
dakan. ereis a mausoleum, built of well-hewn stone, near
which found the remains of a number of buildings the
mosque, a caravanserai, rooms khujras. e monument
by theinscription on the stele, which stands at the head of
gravesinside the mausoleum dates back to the beginning
of the end of theXIIXIII centuries. Epigraphic monument
inscriptions on the tombstones, mausoleums and onvarious
constructions. Epigraphic monuments of Shirvan presented
tombstonesvillage Hazra andIcheri Sheher. Mausoleums and
tombstones of medieval Shirvan with Arabicinscriptions,
dedications and epitaphs are of great historicalvalue. Mauso
leums have certain traits thevertical division, arbis of ex
ternal pyramidal or conical dome tent, elongated proportions
portalsinput openings, niches. Covering of the mausoleums
were double (inside the dome) [14, 56].
e monuments of underwater archaeology are locat
edin the coastal zoneinclude the remains of selements,
at the moment are mainly known the objects of underwater
archeology BandovanI, BandovanII.
BandovanI local
izes the medieval town Gushtas (Gushtaspi) XI–XIII
centuries [10, 23]. e remains of houses rectangular frag
ments, household pits, construction, millstones, a quarter of
poers, ceramic production samples, tools, glass ornaments,
coins are recorded on the monument. As a result of archeo
logical excavations and underwater work glazedvessels with
unique pictorial stamps on the booms have beenidentied
on the site Byandovan located between the mouth of the Kura
River and Cape ByandovanI, on the coast of the Caspian Sea.
Pictorial stigma of BandovanI, displays birds, animals and
even humans.
BandovanII locates the medieval city Mughan– IX- XII
centuries. As a result of archeological excavations and under
water works on the site BandovanII, poer’s furnaces, spheri
cal cons, ceramic samples, glass ornaments are revealed.
Further comprehensive study of medieval monuments of
Shirvan allow replenish typology and summarize data on the
known archaeological monuments.
References:
Aliyev M., Mansurov
M., new archaeological ndsin Mardakan//Reports of the Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan,
Baku,
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Archaeology of Azerbaijan (Middle Ages),
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Archeology. Crimea, the North-Eastern Black Sea region and the Caucasus to the Middle AgesIV–XIII century,
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house of Baku State University,
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O.Sh. Ibragimov FA On the results of archaeological workin the territory ofIcheri Sheherin– 1969.//e mate
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commencement of works)//History Museum of– Azerbaijan 80,
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Section 1. Archaeology
Khalilov
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R.
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Useynov
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History of Azerbaijan Architecture,
– Moscow,
ShcheblykinI.
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Monuments of Azerbaijan architecture Nizami,
– Baku.
Fashion design
in modern Kazakhstan: synthesis of traditions and modernity
Section 2. Study of art
DOI: hp://dx.doi.org/10.20534/EJHSS-17-2-7-10
Volodeva Natalya Aleksandrovna,
Kazakh National Academy of Arts named aer T.
Zhurgenov,
PhD, associate professor
E-mail: [email protected]
Fashion design
of traditions and modernity
Abstract:
In this article we determine ethnic futurism as the main style of modern fashion designin Kazakh
stan. We discuss particularities of this style and specics of using the rich traditions of Kazakh national costume as a
creative sourcein fashion design.
Keywords:
fashion design, costume, Kazakhstan, Middle Asia, ethnic traditions.
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\b  \b\r\b­\r\b \r \b [2]. „\t\r\b\r
\b\t\t\r­\r\b \n,  \b \n  \n
\t\b‚\b \b\n, \t\r\t\r\r\r \t\b­\r
\b\b\r \r \n‚\b   \b€\r\r­\b\r \r \n
\r\r-\f\r\b­\r\n  ­\b [7]. ˜€ 
\n\r\r €\t \t\r\n\t\b\r Š\b\t\r
\b\t\r \b\b\r \t­\r\b \t\b\r
‚\b\b \t\r\t, \n\r\r \n\n\t
\r\t\b \r \t\b \r\b€\t\b 
\b\b\b \t\b€\r\r ­ \t\b \r,
 €\t\r  \b\r   €\n\t [8].
\t\r\r  \b\r \r \b\b 
€\t-‚\b\b \t\rŠ\r\b \t\b  …\r\r
‘\r \b„ ™\n\r, \t\b
Š€\b Š\r\b \r \t\r \rŠ\b \r
\n\r\r \t­\r,  ­ \r\t\n‚\b ,
\b\r\t\b  \b\t \t‚\b , \t\b€\r \b\r\t€\b
‚\b\b, \t\t\r\b\b \b\b\t\b\b. Ž€\t €\b\t\r
\b\n­ € \r\b\r, \n,  \t
\b\t\n\r ­\r \r  \b \b‚\b‚\b, \r
\r\r \t\r\b. ŽŠ\b ­\n\r\t \t\r\r,
\b \t\b€\t\r  \r , \r\b €
\b \n‚\b\b. š\b\t \b\n\r \r
\b\r \r\b \b\b \t\r\b \b­
\t\r€ \t\n \t\n\n ­. \r\b­\r\b\r \t \t
\b\r \t\r\r ­\r\b. „ \r \t
\b­ \f\r\r \n\r\r \t\n\n\t \r\t\b
­\b \b\t\b\t\n\r, \r\t\r ‚\r\n\b
‚\b\b, \n\r  \r\b \t\b\b
€\r\r­ \t \t‚\b\b, \t\b\t\b  \n\r\n
 \b \t, \r\b  \t \r  \b\b \b
\r\t\r\r\b . ›\b­\r\r \b€\r\r\r 
\t\b\t\r­\b, \r\r\t  \t\n \t\n, \b 
\r \b€\b. ‰ , ­ \t\r\r
\b\r «\b­\r \t\b \b\b\t\b \r\t
\b œ \b\t\b­\n  \t\b  \r\t,
\r \t \b, \f\b , \b\b\r
\r» [8, 53].
‰\r\b
….
‘\r \r\b­\r\b , \b
\t\r\t\b\n  \t\r\r \r\r \f\r\b, \b
\b, \t\r, \r\r \t \t,
\r, \n\t \b.
….
‘\r \r\t\b \b
\n\r \r \r\t\n‚\b\b
\t \t\r\r €
€\r \b\n\b\t\b\r \t \b \b\r\b
 \b\n\t\r,  \t\b‚\b \t\n\b \t,
\t\b\n\b\r\r \t\t\nŠ\r\b\r \t\n\n\t \b\r\b, \b\t\n 
­\r\b\r \b\r\b \b€\b \b Š\r\b.
„\r\b­\r\b\r €\r\b \t\n\n\t \t\b‚\b
    \b\b\b \r \r \f\r\r
, ‚\r  \r ­ \n­\b  \t‚\r
\r \b \r‚\b \r,  \b \t\r 
€Š \b\r\t\r. Œ, \b\b ‚\r \b\r\b \n
\r\r \t\n\n\t    \b 
‚\r\n  \t­\r\b \r‚\b „
™\n\r. Ž€\t\r\b\r \t\b­\r\b \t\r\r
\b \b\t\r \b\t\r\r\r , \r\n\b \r€\r
\r ­\r\t \t\r\b\b­\r, \t€ \t \t\r
 \r\t\r\b\b €\n  \t\n\n\t\n   \f\r\r
\b\b­\r \t\r\t,  \b\r\b\b €
\b \f\b­\r\b  \b,   \b\t, ‰\b\t
\r ‘\t\r, ‰\b\t ž\t [4]. „\r\b ‘\t\r, \r
\r \t\r\r\b \b\t\n\t\r (\b­\b\r
‚\r\t \b \b­\b\r \t\n) [11] 
 \n­\r \r\b \r \b‚\b \t\n\n\t
\r\r. \r‚\b\b „.
™\n\r € \r
 \t\r\r \t\b\r\b\r €\b\t 
\b‚\b: \r\r \b\r\r, \b \b\r\t, \r\r \b\r€\r\r.
• \r ­ \n \t\b‚\b\b \t\t
\b­\r\r\b \t\b \t\n\n\t \b\r\t
 . ‰\r\b   \b, ­\b\b
 \n\n\t  \t \f. „\b \t\b,
\t\b\b, \b\t \t\n­\b \r \b\r \f\r\t
\b\b \n  \t\b\t\r­\b\r \b\r\b \n\t€\b\b­\r
‚\b\b\b‚\b\b, \f‚\b \n\r \b\b \t \r
\r\t\b­ \t\b\t \b.
‘\t\n\b  \t\r\b\r  \b
\r \r  \r \f-\f-. \r ­\r
\n\r\r\r \t\r\b\t\b\r €\b\t\n\r \b
\b\b \n\b\b\t ­\r ‚\b  , \t‚\b
 €\r\r \r \t \b\r\b\b, €
\t€\t\b, \f\b­\b \t\b‚\b \r
\t\b, ­ \t\n  \n\r \t\r\r ‚\r
‚\b\r \f\t\b­\b €‡\r \b \b\t   
 \t\b\t\b\b \b  \t \b\r \t\r
‚\r\n € \t\r \b\r\r\r\b.
\rŠ \t\r\b‚\b \f ­\b \t\r€\n\r \b­\b \t\r
\r\r \b\r\b­\r\b \n, \t\b\t\n \b \t\r
\r\b\r €\b\r \t\b \t\t\r
\t\r\r, \r \r­\r, €\t Š\r\b,
\t\r\r\b \b Š\b\t \r, \b\b \t
\b‚\b\b \t. Ž \b\b \r\b \f-\b
 \r  , ­\b, €\r\r \t\r
\b\t\b\r ( ­ \t\r\b\t\b\r \r \n\r),
\b\b\r \f\b­\r\b ­\b \b\b \t\b\t 
\r\t\b. †\r \t\b‚\b\b \b\b‚\b\b  
\r\t \b€\b\r. Œ, €\t\r \b
Fashion design
in modern Kazakhstan: synthesis of traditions and modernity
\t€\t\b  \n\b, \f\b­\r\b
­\b \r\t\b,  , \b\n\r \b \t€
 \b\r\t … ™\b. Œ\r\b\n \n \n
Š\b
\b
\b \t\b\r  \b \t€ ™\n\t
…, ƒ\t ‹\n\t€\r  € \r\t\b
\r\b,  \t\b\r \t\b\t\b \r\b ,
 \t\r \t€\t\b  .
Ÿ­\b\r \r‚\b  ­\r \b\b\b
\t\b‚\b  \t\r\b\b\b \b‚\b \n­\r \r
\t\b, \t€\t\n \r \b\b \b\b­\r \t\b
\t\r \f\r\r \b\b. †\r\t\t\r‚\b
\t\b‚\b  \t\r \b€\r\r \t \t\r
\r \r‚\b ™\n\t …: \t \t­\r\b
\t\r€\t\n\r \t\b‚\b \t\r, \b\b\n \r €\r
\t, \t\t\nŠ \b\b \t\r\t\b \r \b‚\b
\n  \t\n\n\t\n, \r\t\b\b\t\n ‚\r\n  \n, \t\r\t
\n   \t \t\r Š\b\b, \r\r €\r\r
\n\b\b \r\r \r\t\b. ‰\r\b ™\n\t …
\r\r \r\r \b\t\t\r­\r\b \n­\b\r.
\b  \t\r\b\r \b\r\b ‚\r\b \b\b\b
\r \n\t\r \b\t\b, \r\b\r\b ­\r\r \b\t\b\t.
Ž€\r\r \t\b\b\r \r\b\r\b \t\r
\n\t\r\b \t\r \b, \t­\b \t\b
\b\b\b‚\b\b \t, ­ \r, -\b\b\n, ­\b\r\b\r
\r \r\b \b\t\r\b\r \b.
‘\t\n  \b\b  \t\b‚\b \t
\t\r \t\b\r\r \b\r\t …\n ƒ. ‹\r
\t \b­\r\r, \t \r €\n\r \r\b\r
\b\r «\tŠ\r \b» \b\b­\r \r\b\t
\b, \t \tŠ\b\t\r \b \t\b\b \b 
\r\r \t\b\r\r. ­\r, \t\r \t\r\r \f\r
\r \b\t\b­  \t\r \t\n\n\t
\b\r \b ­\n\r\t\n  \t\r\n, \b\r\t \r\t\r
\r \b \t\b\r \t\t\r\b\r, \b­\r\b
\r \b\r \r ­\r\b \b\t 
\r ‚\b‚\b\b. ˆ\t \f € \r\t\r\b  ­\b‚
\b €‡\r \b­ €\r\b\r\n  \t\r\n [10].
ˆ\t\b­\n\b\r \t \t\b\r \t\r \n 
\t\b\t\r­\b\r \r\t\b-\t\b­\r\b ,
\t \r \t\r \b\r \b \r\t\r\b 
\b­\r\t\b\r ,  : \r­\r
\r\t­ \t\n\n\t \t\r \f\r\r
\r \b\r€\r. Ž\r\r \t\n\n\t, 
\t \t\b, \bŠ\r \t\b­ ­\r\b, \f\r\r
\t\b‚\b \t\r \t\r € \f\r\b­\r\b
€\t, \n\r \r ( \r

\t\b\n\r
 «€\t\b \t»), \r \t\r\r  
\n­\r \n \t\r\t ‚\b \b\r\b­\b.
‰ \b\t, ­  \r\r €Š\b
 \b \b\r\t \r\t\b\t\n  \b\b 
\b  \b\b \n\r\r \t\n\n\t 
‚\b  ,  € \b‚\b \r
 \b\r, \t\b\b­\r\b\r €\r\b, \t\b
‚\b\r \r\t\b \b€ \r\b, \t\r\r
\b, \t\r\r €\r\b \t. ‰\r \b\b‚\b\b,
‚\b‚\b\b, \b\b   \r\n\b\b. •\r\b­\r
\n‚\b   \r \t\r\b\t\n \r, \b\r
Š\r\r \b\b\r \n\r\r ‚\b \b \r\t\r‚\b\t\n \r
\b\t\b\n \n‚\b\b  , \b \n\rŠ \r
 , \t\b\r\t, \b\b \r€  \r
\r\r (\t€ …\b ƒ\n\r, \b\r\t ‘
 «„€» \b«¡\t\r ‹\n\t»). \r \n­
\b \b\r\t \n\r \b­  \r
\r\b €\t\b\t\b \b\r\b -\b€ \f\r\r \n
\r\r \t\n\n\t ‚\b   
 \n­\b\r, \r\t\r\t\r\r\b \r \t 
\b‚\b \t\rŠ\r\b\b, \r\b \r \n‚\b .
…\t\r \b\n\r \b\b \t\b \r
 \t\r\b\t\b €Š\b\r \r ­
\t\r: \r\t­\r \b\r\t\r \t\r
\t\r\r\r \t\b\r\b\t \n  \t\r
€\b\r. ‹\t\r \t\b\r \b\t\t\r\b\r
\t\r\b\r, \t\r\b\r\b \t \b \b\n
  \rŠ\b\r \r \b-\t\r\b\t\b, ­
\b \r \r\t\n‚\b\b, \b\r\t\b\b, \t \t‚\b\b,
\n \t\r\b\t\b. ‹Š , \b\r \t\r
\r\b\r \r\t\r\b €\t\r\t \b Š€
\n \t\b‚\b\b  \r \n \t\b\r\b
\r \r\r‚\b\b \t\r\r\n  \n  \n.
ƒ  \b\b, \b\r\r \t\b‚\b \b\t\r\r
, \b \n\r\t\r\b \n\r\r-\f\r\b­\r\b
\t\r€\r ­\r\r, \r\tŠ\r\b \t, \t,
\r\b\b    \t\b­ ­\b \t\r\r-
\r\t\b \t\r, \r \b \t\t\rŠ\r
\b \b\r\b­\r \t\b\b, \t\rŠ\r \r\r
€\r\r, \t\b\t\b  \n\r\r-\f\r\b
­\r\b \n, \r \t\r\r\r\b ‚\b
\b\r\b­\b.
References:
…\b
….
‘\b\b \f\r\b­\r\b ‚\r\r \n\r\r \n\n\t  \t.
– …:
˜\t\b\r,
– 2004.
– 120.
ž­\r
.
›.
‘\b   \r. ‰\t \b.
– ‰.: ¡\t, 2006.
– 320.
‘\rŠ\b
….
¢.
‰ \r\r \b\n \n\n\t: \t \b ——– ­XXI.
– „-ˆ\r\r\t€\n\t:
…\t\b,
– 2009.
– 106.
ƒ\t\n
£.
ƒ., —
‰.
ƒ  \n\n\t.
– …: ¡\t\b,
– 78.
ƒ\bŠ\r
‰.
ˆ\b\b .
– ‰.: Ž\b,
– 320.
ƒ­\r\b\b: •\r\b (ˆ\b\r \b\t \t\b‚\b  \b\n\r).
– …: ž,
– 264.
˜\b
•.
….
ƒ\b\r ‚\b\r \t\b‚\b\b \t\r\r \r\r.
– …-…: ¤\r\t,
– 80.
Section 2. Study of art
˜\r
….
Ž \r\t\b\b \b.
ˆ€.:– ˆ\b\r\t,
– 224.
Œ\n­\b\b
ž.
›.
„ \b\r \r\t\b:  \r\r\b\b \r\r\r\b \r \b\b\r €//\t
\b \b\b,
– 1999.
– ¥10.
– „.35–53.
¦\r\r
¡.
„\b \n\n\t \n\b‚\b\b//§\r\r.
– „.5–14.
š
£.
‰\b\t \t\b‚\b \n\n\t .
– …: ƒ,
– 174.
The Dynamics of ommercialization of Russia’s Agriculture
Section 3. History and archaeology
DOI: hp://dx.doi.org/10.20534/EJHSS-17-2-11-14
Kovalev DmitriyVladimirovich,
State University of Humanities and Social Studies,
Professor, Doctor of History
E-mail: dmitrij
[email protected]
The Dynamics of ommercialization of Russia’s
Agriculture
Absract:
e article analyzes the changes ofindicators of commercialization of agriculture of Russia under
theinuence of the NEP.
e author considers the causes which slowed down the development of market trendsin
the agricultural sector, and traces theinterrelation of a problem of weak commodication of the peasant economyin
the 1920s and the further fate of the new economic policy.
Keywords:
agriculture, agricultural policy, peasantry, the NEP; marketability.
 \t\n\n \n\t\n\n,
\b  \n
\b\t\n \b\n\n,
 \n\n\n\f \b, 
E-mail: dmitrij
[email protected]
\n \r\r \t\b\r 
:
\r \t\b\b\t \b\r\r\b \r\r \t\b \r  ˜\b\b
 \b\b\r \f. …\t \t\t\b\r \t\b­\b, \t\bŠ\b\r \t\b\b\r \t­ \r\r‚\b \t\t
 \r\t\r, \b\t\r\b\r \b \t€\r € \t\b‚\b\b \t\r  1920
\r.
\b\rŠ\r \n€  \f\b­\r \b\b\b\b.
 
: \r\r , \t\t \b\b, \t\r, \f, \t.
Ž \b\b€\r\r  \b\t\n\t\t\rŠ\b ­
 \f\b­\r \b\b\b ¨ \r¨ \t\r\b\b
 ­ Š\r\b \t\b \t\r
\r\t\b. \r­ ­\r\r, \r€ 
\n\t €\r\r­\b ­ €\t \b\n­\b
\t \t  \t\t \r\t\r \b 
 \f\b­\r\b \t, \t\r\t\rŠ\bŠ\b \r
\f \b\r\t\r Š \b\r \r\b\b
‚\b\b \r  „„„˜.
ƒ \b\r, \b\r
\r€\b\r\r \t\b\b \b \r\t\r\r
\b \t\rŠ\r\r\b\b «\r\b \r\t\r», \b€ \t
\t\b\b €Š\b \b\b­\r \t\n
\t   \t\n\r \n  \f
\r \r\b. ‹€ €, \rŠ\r \r\t\r,
\r€‡\r\b ­\b, ­ \f  \b\b  
\b­\r\t \r€ \f \r.
™\r\t, \n\b\r \r\b €\b\t
 \t\r\n\b\t\b  \r  \b\r
\r\r \r\t, \t\b \b\n\b\t 
\r\n  \b \t\r (­  \b\b \b
\r\t\r \t \r \b  \f\b­\r
\b\b\b) \r€ \n\t\r\n \t\b
\b  \t \t\n‚\b\b \r\t\b\b\r\r. Ž
 \t\n \t, \n\n\r €\r ¨\r
\r\b \t\r\r \r \b\b \t\t\n   \r\t\n,
\r \n\r ­\r 20
. €­\b ­ 
\r\r‚\b \t­ \t \t‚\b\b  \t
\r. ¡\b 1922/23. \t\r\r   \t\b
\b 9,2\t\n€. \t \t\n‚\b\b, 1923/24. \r¨
\b \t 23,4\t\n€. ‹‚\r, \t\r\b 
\t\r ‚\b \r\t\b \t \t\r
  \n\b  \f\b­\r \b\b\b
 ­\b\r \b\r \b, \t\r\r \r, Š\r\b\b
\r\t \t\n‚\b\b, \t €‡¨ \t 1925.
\b \t\b\r\t 20%. ‹\n\r \r\t \b\t 
\f \r \t\rŠ ­\r¨\t\n  ­ \r \r\t
 \t\b. \b\r\r \b\r\t\n\t\r \r\b\r
\t\b \r\t \b ­¨ ‚\r\b
Section 3. History and archaeology
25%, \t\n\b \b. ˆ\t\b­¨ \t\r\b‚\b \t\b
\b 15,4%  €\t, Š\r\b‚– 39,1%, ­\r
– 21,6, – 12,1, \t­\b \n\n\t– 17,1%. ˆ\r\b­\r
\b \n\n\t \t \b\b 30,2%, 
\r– 19,3, \t ¨– 8,5, – 6,8%%
 \b\r €  \r \b \r
\r‚\b. ƒ‚\n \b\r \r\t\b \r \t
\t\b \n\t\b. Ž€‡¨ \t­ \t\n‚\b\b ­
€ \t  . ‹,  \b\r\r\r\b\b,
‡¨ \t\r \b, \t\r  
\b\b \b€\r\r \t \t\r \t \t\r\t (\r\t
\n  ­\r\t\r \r\t\b\r ‚\r), \r .
ˆ\f\n, \r\t , ­ \r \n\t\r \t\b
 \t\n \b 1925. € \b\n,
\t\r \n­\r \b\t\r¨, \t ¨\r 
\r¨ \b. ‘­, \r\b, ­ \r \r
\r \t\n‚\b\b \n\t\r \t\b 1925. 
\b \r 63,4% \r\n [5, 338; 10, 331, 334].
˜\n\r\r,  \t \t\n‚\b\b \r €
\bŠ , \r\b \n­\r \b\r\r\b, \t\r \t
\bŠ\b \r \t\r ‚\b \t\t \t\r€\t\b.
ˆ\t\r\r \r, \t\r\b\r \t \t\r\n\t \r
\t\b\r € €\n\r \b\b‚\b\r ­
\r­\r\b \b\t\n \t\r\b   
\b \r\t \t. ƒ1917. \b  \t\b\r
\t \r\t  \r\r 22\b55%. ˆ\t\b
\f \t \t\b \r­\r\b  \t\r\b\b
\t\r\b\b € \t\b\r\t \r Š\r [4, 189]. ƒ\t\r
, \r€\b \r\b, ­ ‚\b\b‚\b\r \r\b
\b­\r \b\r\r \r\r  (\n­\b\r \b\t\r
\r \r\b), Š\b  \t\r \t
\r \t\r ‚\b \r\t\b. ‹\r\n  \t
\t \r \t \f\b­\r €\r \b
\r \r\t‚\b \r\t\r\b  \t\r
\b\n\t, ­\r ­\b\r \r\t\r \t\b\b 
\b\r\r \t‚\r \r \r \t.
 \r \t\r, \r\t \b\r\r \t\b­\r\b
(\b \r\r\b \b€\b, \t\b\r\b\r
\r €\n \n \t€­\r \b \b\t\b\b 
\t\r Š\r\b \r\r\b\b, ­¨\t\n
\t\t\r\b €\r\b, €\t\r\r\b\r
\n\b \t\r\b \b\t.), \r\t\r  \f\b­\r
\b\b\r  \r€\b\r \n\b  \r
\b \t­ \n‚\b \t\r . ˆ
\r ‚\r \t\b\b\r\r \b \t
\t\n‚\b\b \r  1921/22. \b­\b
1740. \t\n€., 1925/26.
– 3929., 1926/27.
4373. \b\b €\t \n\r ­\b \b \r
\n\t (1913.
– 4498. \t\n€.) [6, 54, 56]. —, \t
\t \t\n‚\b\b \t\b\b \t\r\b\n\r\n \r
\b­\r\b\r \n\n\t \b\b, \t\b\r
\r\t €  \r\r \b\r\b \r
 Š€. Œ\r \r\r\r\r, \b\n\b\t\n \b \t\r\t
\t\t \b\b\b \r\t \b 20
. ­\b \t\r
\b \t­ \b € ­\r\b\r. ƒ\n\r,
\f \r\t\b  \t\r\t\b €\b \tŠ\b\t\r\b\r
\b€\r\t ­, \n\b‚\b \r \t
 \b 1925
 ,  \n\t Š ‚\r
\t \r\t, \t\b‚\b\b \tŠ\b\t \b \b 
\t\b\b \t\r\t\b\b\r \r . Œ,
\t\n ­\b\r \b\r\b\r \t\r\t \r
\r  \b\r\tŠ\r\b\r \b\r 
€\r\b \n­¨ \b\r\t\r \t\b\b\r, \n\t
  \t\b­\r\b  \t\r \r\r\b,
 ­\b\r \t\t\rŠ\r \t­ \r\r \t\r
(12\b€\r\r \r). ˆ\t\b \f \t\r\t \t\t\rŠ\r \b
\b\r  \t€­\r \b. ƒ\t\r , \b 
\t‚\r\r \b \r\r\n \t\r\b\n
\b­  \r \n\b, \b  ‚\r \t
\t\n \n\t\r \tŠ\r\b \b\t.
…\t\t \b€\r\t\b‚\b 1925.  \b ­\b
\r €\t\b\r \n\b  \t \tŠ\b\t\r
\t\b \r\r \t \b\n\b
\r\b \b \t­ \t\r\b, ­ \b\r\t\b
\b\b. „  «ƒ\t ‚\b \t» ž
, \r\b 1923/1924. \t \t\b \r \r
\r \t\n (€\r \n­¨ \n\t\b\r\t\r\r
 €\t)  \r 16,1%, 1926/27. 
 18,3%. †  \r 
\r¨ \b\r (\t\b\r\t 23%) \r \n\t, \r
­\r\r Š\r\b\r   \b\r \t\b
­ \r [4, 188].
‹\r\t \f, \r€\b\r \b
1925/26. € \t. †\r­\r \n \r
€ 545. \n \n \b 
336. \n, \b­\r\t \r \n\r\r  \f \t\r
\b \b\b\b «—\r€\t\n» \b\t \r\t‚\b\b.
Ž \t\b­\b «\r€ \t\b\b» \b ‡ 
\n\t\r €\r, \r \t­¨\b \t\b
\r \b\r \r, \t\r \b\t
\b ­\t\r­ \b\r €‡¨ \r\t \f\t.
‹\r€ \n\t € € \t­\b \r\r\t. ˆ
\b\t\n \b\r \t \r\n­\b €\r, ­ 
\r \t\r\n\r , \t € \r\n\t, 
\n\bŠ\r \n\t \t\r ­\b\r\n  ­
\r€ \b \t , \n­ \r\n\t, \r\r¨
\r \t. ‹\r\n  \t \r \t \b\t 
\tŠ\b ‚\r \b\t\b\r: \t\r\b\b \n\t\r
1913. Š\r\b\r \r\r \b\tŠ
\r ‚\r \b\r\b \t\n \t\b \r\b
\r \t [7, 74].
 € \n\b \t\r\b \t\r\b \b
\r\r\r\r , \n\t\r \t\n, \r¨ €\r\r
\t\b­\b  \t \t\n‚\b\b \r .
Œ\b €\t, \r\b, \bŠ\b\r \r \r€
\b\r \b\b €‡\b \r \t
€\r\b \b \t\b \t\r \r
\r \t\b,  \r­ \b€
\b\r \f\b­\r \b\b \n\t.
The Dynamics of ommercialization of Russia’s Agriculture
ƒ€ \b€, \t \r€ \b,  \r
\b\r, \f\t-\b\t  €\t\b \n\t\b
\t\b\r \t \rŠ\r \n€\r \f. ƒ\f\n \t\r
\r\b  ­\r\b, ­ \bŠ\b\r \r\r
\r\b, \bŠ\b\r \b\r \n\rŠ \t\rŠ\b
\t€\r \r\b \t  \r \b
\t \b\t , \r€\r\r­\b  ­
\n\t \r\b  \n\t\r \t\r\t\n‚\b\b \t
Š\r \t\b.
Œ\r \r\r\r\r, €Š\b \t\r \f\b \r­\r\b\r
\r\b \r \r \tŠ\r\bXIV ‡\r ƒˆ
(€) \n\t \b\n\t\b\b‚\b , ­\b  \n
\r\b \r¨, \r \f \t\b‚\b\r, \bŠ
\t\b­\bŠ\b \t\r\r¨\b \t\t\r\b\b \t\t
\n\t,   \b\r \r\r  \t\t\b
\t\b-\n\t\r \t\n ­\r\r 
 \b­\b \t\r. \r \t\r \r \r\t\b,
­ \n\r 1926. \b\b\r \n\t ¨ ­¨\b\r\r
­\b\r \t\t\b \t\r\r\b\r \n\b\b \t
‚\b-\f\b­\r\b\b \t‚\r\b \r\t\r\r
\b\t\b­\b Š€ \b€\r\t\b \t\t  \r\t\r.
‹­  € \r­\r \t\r\b Š\r\b\r \r
\r  ­¨ \n\b\r\b \t\t\r\b
\b €\r\b \b\t\t\t\r\b \r \t\b­\r\b \r
\b \f\b­\r \r\r\b, \t\b\bŠ\b\r 
€ \r \t\r \r\b (, \t\b­\r
, \b‚\r, \b, ­\r, \r\r
\r\r­\r\b\r \b\r \b\n\t\r \t \b\t.). •
\r ¨ \n\t \b€\r\r \b \r
 Š\r\b\b  \r \r\r\b, ­\b\r
€\b \b \b  \t\b\b \t\b
\r\t\b [3, 237–243].
‹\t\n \f\b  ƒ\r ˜„¦„˜  ­\r
  107
, \t  «œ \r Š\r\b\r ‚\r
\t \n¨ \n\b, \t\b \b\b \r\n 
\t» \bŠ\r\b\r € \t \t¨ \r 
 \b\b ­\b­  \b‚\b\r \b\n\r [9]. „\n
 \b \n\r Š\b\t \t\b\r  \r¨ \t\b\r, 
\t\nŠ \r   \b ­\r \r\b \r\t\r
\r\r \t\t¨\t\b \n\t , 
\t\n \t\r\b \t\b \t \r
\t   \t\n‚\b , \b \r¨ \r
 \b\b €\r\n \n\t\r\b . ¦\b
­\r\b \n\t \t \r€\r \t \b \r
\t\r\r €‡¨ \r\t\n‚\b\b, \r\r \t\r\b‚\b\b
\t\r. † ­\n 107
    \t\r\r
\t\b\r , \n\t \t\r \b\bŠ\b
\t\rŠ\b 2. \n \r\t, \r\b\r\b \f
\t \r\r \t\nŠ: \b\b \r \b
\bŠ\b, \b\t\r ; \r\t\r  \b
\r \r€, \r ­\b\r ­ \t\r \t\b
(\r\b‚, €\t, \t\r\t\b\b \r\t\r\t€\r \t
\b\t.) [1, 247].
„ \r€\t 1926. \t\rŠ\r\b\r „\r Œ\t\n \bŽ€\t
€ \t\r\r \t \n  \r\r
\n  \r\b\n ­ \b‚ [8]. ˜\n\r\r, ­ \t\b€
\t\r\r\b\b \r\r €\b \b\r\t\r  €\t
\t\r \t\r\b\r .
†\r\r\b \b­ \t\r\t \t\b \b
\r \r\r \b\b\r, \b \t\r\b\b
\t \b \t\b\r\b\r \t\b\b  \t\r
 Š\r\b \b\r\b\b­ \t \r\r\b.
\r\r \n\r\b «\t\rŠ\r\r \n­\r» \r
\r €\r\b \n\t €\r €\t€\n
\b\b\r  \t€­\r \b \t\t  \r\t\r, 
\n\r ­\b\r Š€ \r
\r 1925. ‹\f \r \t\r \t \t \r\t\r
\r \n\t\r \t\r\n\b\t\b. ˆ\t\b\r
\t\r\t\b \f\r\t\b­\r \r\t  \t\b\t\n 
\n\t\r\b  \t \r\t\n‚\b\b. \t\r\r 1927.
\b \t \r\b „‹ƒ „„„˜ \t‚\b\b
\rŠ\b \r\r \n\n\t, \t\rŠ\r
\b­\r\r ¨\t\b\r € \r\t‚\b \r\t
\b\b\r ­ \t\r \n\t \t\r\t
 \b\r, \b\n \r ‚\r.
\b\r\b\r \t\b­\b\r, \b\t­ \r\r‚\b
\t\t \b\b\r \t \b 20
. \n\r\n
\b\b \b\b\n\n \b€\r  \r\bŠ \n  
\b\r\t\r \t\r\b Š\r\b\b \t\b
\r\t\b,  \r \r‚\b \f \r
 \r¨ \r \r\t\r\b. ƒ\t\b\b 
\b\r \b € \n\b \b\b
\t\b­\r\b \r\b€\r\b, \r \r\t ­\b\r
 \t \t  \f \r\t\r\r. •
 \t\r\t\rŠ\b \n­  \f\b­\r 
\b\b\b, \t \r \t\rŠ ­\b \n\t\r
\r\b \t\r  \t\b\t \b\n\t\b\b
‚\b\b \r­\r\r \f\b\b, \n €  
\r\b \b\t\r\b\b \r\b ‚\r\t\b
\t\r\n\b\t\b \r \t‚\r.
References:
ž\n\b
©., †\b.
….
ž\n\t\r\r \t\r\n\b\t\b\r \r€ \t \n\b \f – 1921–1929.
//…\t\t \t \b\t\b­\r \t\b\b\b.
– ¡\r\t\b€\n\t,
– „.247.
†\t\b \r \t\r. 5
\b .
– Œ.1. ƒ\t\r \r\t\r \r\b\r\b\r „\r \b– 1917–
– ‰.: ‹\n,
– „.278.
Ĭ
‘.
.
…\t\t\r \t\r€\t\b \b\t\r \b­ \t\r\b (\r\t\b ‰
\n€\r\t\b\b).
– ‰.,
– 2004.
– „.237–243.
ƒ\t\r
‘.
Ž€\r \r\b\r. †€\t\r \t\b\r\r\b 2
 \b. –‰.,
– ƒ.2.
– „.189.
ƒ\t\r ‚\b \t \t  – 1926/27.
– ‰.,
– „.338.
Section 3. History and archaeology
ƒ\t\r ‚\b \t \t  „„„˜ – 1925/26. 2
\r \b.
– ‰.,
– „.54, 56.
˜\b
›.
 \b\t\t\r \t\r \t ˜\b\b ——\r.
– ‰.,
– „.74.
„€\t\b\r  \b\t\t\r\b \t€­\r-\t\r \t\b\r „  „\r\b „‚\b\b\b­\r\b
˜\r\n€\b.
– „. 633.
„€\t\b\r \n\r\b \b\t\t\r\b ˜€­\r \bƒ\t\r \t\b\r ˜„¦„˜.
– „. 600.
„\r\r \t\r  – 1921–1925.
– ‰.,
– „.331, 334.
DOI: hp://dx.doi.org/10.20534/EJHSS
Mukhabbat Khamidova,
PhDin History, Senior sta  scientist,
National University of Uzbekistan
E-mail: [email protected]
Studying of Uzbekistan’s architectural monuments at the end
— early
XX centuries (on the basis of local archive sources)
Abstract:
is articleis devoted to learning history of architectural monuments of Uzbekistanin the end ofXIX
earlyXX centuries. Additionally, the role of archival documents of the circle of Turkistan amateur-archeologists, the
Commiee of Preservation Middle Asia’s ancient, art monuments, natural resources and museum aairsin Central
State Archive of the Republic of Uzbekistanisilluminated on studying of Uzbekistan’s architectural monuments.
Special aentionis paid to covering the history of the activeities of stateinstitutionsin scientic studying, restora
tion and preservation of architectural monuments of the republic.
Keywords:
archival sources, architectural monuments, mosques, madrasas, mausoleums, palaces, local residen
tials.
Uzbekistan’s material culture, especially learning histor
ical-memorial monuments which was created with the base
of Uzbekistan’s national traditions, researching their unique
sides was basicissue of history, archeology, ethnography, mas
tership, architecture even before the country’sindependence.
Various maers of national architecture were analyzed by ex
perts of the specialties above.
Itis know that, researching architectural monuments
of Uzbekistan began deeplyin theXIX century. Organizing
the circle of Turkistan amateur-archeologists andvery many
maers which learned by them were signicantlyimportantin
that time [1, 9]. e circle that founded at the end ofXIX cen
tury (Dec.11. 1985) principally focused on researching histor
ical monuments of Turkistan. As the regulation of the circle,
learning all historical monuments that locatedin Turkistan
region, analyzing scientically all materials about them and
the maers of publishing were takeninto consideration. e
researches of that organized by them, especially, all material
resources, which founded as a result of researched at historical
monumental places needed to be submied to Archeological
Commission of Empire [2, 13].
Scientic researches of the Turkistan amateur-archeolo
gist circle, preciousinformation was précised about the loca
tion of several archeological and architectural monumentsin
Turkistan region, their preserving condition, their measures,
draughts, photographs. In addition, historical reference books
about researched archeological and architectural monuments
and myths were mentioned about them. e Commission
thatin 1918began to work under the supervision of notable
orientalist scholarVyatkin, in order to preserve falling mina
ret of Ulugbek madrassah, was the continuation of the circle
Turkistan amateur-archeologists. Vyatkin, who considered as
a protector of Uzbekistan archeological-architectural monu
ments and his commission’s members cooperated with local
masters and famous engineer-architects B.
N.
Kastalskiy and
M.
F.
Mauer. In 1919, September 6, new Commission orga
nized under the Republic of Turkistan Public Education under
the supervision of S.
Abdusaarov for learning Uzbekistan’s
ancient monuments. However, the commission’s aairs were
solely gatheringinformation about historical-architectural
monuments. Aer the October Revolution, there were several
kind of commission, yetin those years, few aairs were carried
out for researching and preserving those monuments [3, 1].
Finally, in 20
years ofXX century, researching maers
like kind of historical monuments were recommenced as well.
In other words, several state establishments were organized
which accomplished so many positive achievements aer
wards. Especially, under the decision of Central Social Com
miee of Turkistan Republic, Central Archive Management of
the Republic of Uzbekistan (Tsuardel, in 1920, Jan 30.), e
Commiee of Preservation Middle Asia’s ancient, art monu
ments, natural resources and museum aairs and etc. In 1921,
the commiee ªProtecting ancient, art monuments and natu
ral resources and museum aairs” under the Commissariat
of Turkistan national enlightenment, “Turkomstaris” (1921,
May 21) and “Sredazkomstaris” (1924, Dec 26) made several
Studying of Uzbekistan’s architectural monuments at the end of
XX centuries (on the basis of local archive sources)
expeditions and this could be good example of learning the
history of Central Asia. ose organizations were leaders for
researching and saving monumentsin Central Asia. Accord
ing to the decree of e Republic of Turkistan Commissariat
Public educationin 1921, May 21the commiee was founded
for preserving Turkistan antiquity, art monuments, natural
resources and museum aairs (Turkomstaris), and then the
authority of controlling about such aairs was given to the
commiee. Takinginto consideration of several historical-
architectural monuments, which locatedin dierent regions
of Uzbekistan, several elds of the commiee were founded
like Samkomstaris, Buhkomstaris, Khivkomstaris.
In 1924, December 24, Turkomstaris was ended because
of nishing national-territorial delimitation andinstead of that
Sredazkomstaris was founded for researching and preserving
antiquity, art monuments, natural resources and museum af
fairs. e commiee had done so many things like preserving,
researching, and reconstructing architectural monumentsin
Central Asia, especiallyin Uzbekistan due toits authority by
the end of 1929. Signicant side of those aempts, the results
of researches and the reports of scientic specialists which had
been done by those commiees, were publishedin periodical
papers, especially they were publishedin “Izvestiya Sredaz
komstarisa” (“Proceedings of Sredazkomstaris” special mass
paper since 1925.). Moreover, valuable documents, which be
longed to state establishments as stated above, were preserved
up to now [4, 2–3].
According to the documents, during 1921–1929s
Turkomstaris and Sredazkomstaris registeredvery many mon
uments as under the protection of state. In that period, the
condition of those architectural monuments was sorrowful
and researching and constructing them was the main maer
for the commiee. According to the decree of the commiee,
Registan square and Sherdor, Ulugbek, Tillakori madrassas,
the mausoleum of Guri Amir, the mosque of Bibikhanum,
Oksaroy which was the residence of Amir Temur, the archi
tectural complex of Shahi Zinda, the mosque of Khoja Ah
ror, the mosque ofIshratkhona, the mosque of Namozgoh,
remnants of Ulugbek observatory, Shaybaniykhan dynasty’s
cemetery the mosque of Childuhtaron, the grave of the
prophet Doniyor, Afrasiyob ancient town, the cemetery of
Chuponota and other ancient buildings and holy placesin
Samarkand were taken under the protection of government.
e Kukaldosh madrassa, Khoja Ahror madrassa and mosque,
Barokhon madrassa, Kaol-Shoshiy mausoleumin Tashkent,
Ahmad Yassaviy mausoleum and mosquein Turkistan, the
palace and residence of Khans of Kukandin Fergana region,
the mausoleum of Sheikh Fozilin Kosonsoy and othervery
many historical-architectural monuments were registered.
Several projects were worked out for researching scientically,
repairing and reconstructing by scientic experts of Uzbeki
stan. According to the decree of Turkomstaris, the registered
architectural-historical monuments should be preserved and
the trac of Lorries should be stopped. Particularly, because
of theinitiative of members of the commiee, publicity of the
preserving of historical-architectural monuments expanded
broadly among local people. Especially, kind of aairs were
utilized around of Registanin Samarkand, so here the trac
of lorries were stopped andvery many posters were hangin
the streets wrienin Russian and Uzbek. Because of the ex
pedition Turkomstaris, some errors were specied while re
constructing at the beginning ofXX century. Aerwards the
errors were corrected, asit was possible [5]. In 1921, one of
the local branches of commiee, Samkomstaris suggested re
searching, reconstructing and repairing the main architectural
complexes of Samarkand, and then so many positive achieve
ments were accomplished.
Nowadays, all documents, which belonged to researching
architectural monuments of Uzbekistan, are preservedin the
organizational funds such as Turkistan architect-amateurs cir
cle [6], Sredazkomstaris [7] and private funds ofV.
L.
Vyatkin
[8], B.
N.
Zasipkin [9], S.
N.
Polupanov [10], M.
E.
Masson
and G.
A.
Pugachenkova [11], who researchedvery material-
cultural heritage deeply, and othersin the Central State Ar
chive of the Republic of Uzbekistan. ose precious histori
cal sources have signicantimportance for learning history of
national architectural monuments created by Uzbek nation.
To conclude, architectural monuments of Uzbekistan
reected experience of our great ancestors, skillful and tal
ented handicrasmen who was the master ofintellect. Based
on unique traditional architectural monuments which saved
their aractiveness and freshness were takeninto consider
ation aentively during the end ofXIX and earlyXX centu
ries when so many commiees worked properly like the circle
of Turkistan archeologist-amateurs, Tsuardel, Turkomstaris,
Uzkomstaris made much eort for researching, repairing and
reconstructing of the architectural-historical monuments of
Uzbekistan. Particularly, as a result of commiees aairs:
very many historical-architectural monuments were
registered which were locatedin Uzbekistan;
in the architectural monuments, which situatedin cen
tral cities, were researched completely;
several references were composed because of those sci
entic researches about those historical-architectural monu
ments;
the saving condition of the monuments was claried;
immediately, the plans were arranged about their con
dition for doing what was necessary;
the national-architectural monuments, which were
sorrowful and falling, were planned to preserve;
the nancial means were provided for repairing and
reconstructing them based on several kind of projects;
several architectural complexes were reconstructed, re
paired, which situatedin Uzbekistan, and necessary actions
were done for preserving them;
the possibility of developinginternational tourism
were createdin Uzbekistan;
mass media also gave so muchinformation about the
scientic researches which donein the historical-architectural
monuments as possible asit was.
Section 3. History and archaeology
According to the archive documents, it could not be said
that the aairs stated above were not done for the sake of Uzbek
nationin the end ofXIX and earlyXX century. Because, all
material wealth, which was founded as a result of scientic re
searches, were taken to Moscow and Saint Petersburg, because
Uzbekistan was under the occupation of Soviet Union. ere
fore, the nation of Uzbekistan was deprived their historical-
spiritual wealth. Even though, in the end ofXIX and earlyXX
century, so much eort was done for preserving, repairing
and reconstructing of the historical-architectural monuments
which situatedin the precious citiesin Uzbekistan. It was sig
nicantly noticeable that theinuence of being under the So
viet Union, so a lot ofinformation was not given correctly. Yet,
clarifying several points of the scientic problem should be
takeninto consideration. As well, because of so many scientic
workers and the commiees stated above the new generation
could witness such beautiful historical-architectural complexes
that situatedin our Republic. Nowadays, they are considered
not only pride of Uzbek nation, but also architectural heritages
of whole world and are appreciated completely.
References:
Masson
‰.
¡. A brief brochure history of learning Middle Asia’s archeological monuments. (Chapter 1)//Aairs of Middle
Asia State University. Archeology of Middle Asia. Book. XII.
– Tashkent: MASU– 1956.
– P. 9.
Opening the circle of Turkistan amateur-archeologists.
– Dec 11,
– Tashkent: Typo Lithography.
– P. 13.
CSARU f.R
3, l.1, f. 204, 1.
CSARU f.R
394, l.1, f.407, P.2–3.
CSARU f.R
394, l.1, f.3, 22–28.
CSARU f.R
71, s.
u. 25.
CSARU f.R
394, s.
u. 374.
CSARU.
f.R
1591. s.
u. 116.
– 1904–1932.
CSARU.
f.R
2406. l.1, s.
u. 1668.
CSARU.
f.R
2286. l.1, s.
u. 256.
CSARU.
f.R
2773. l.1, s.
u. 1466.
Problem of broadcast of spiritual heritage of Russia and national traditions of the people of the former USSR
Section 4. Cultural studies
DOI: hp://dx.doi.org/10.20534/EJHSS-17-2-17-20
Genova Nina Mikhaelovna,
doctor culturologists,
professor of the Omsk state university
of F.
M.
Dostoyevsky.
E-mail [email protected]
Problem of broadcast of spiritual heritage of Russia and national
traditions of the people of the former USSR
in Siberia as factor
Section 4. Cultural studies
Ž €\n\r \t\r\b  \n\b, \n
\b\n \b\t\b\t\b\r\n €\r­\r\r­\r\b ‚\r\r \b
\t\r \t\r\b\r \n \b €\r,
Š\r\b\r ­\b\b \n\n\t \b\n \r‚\b
 \t\r\b „\b€\b\t\b. ˆ\t\b \f \t\b \t\r\b‚\b\b \t\r
\t‚\b\b \n \r\b ˜\b\b \r\f\b­\r\r
\b\r\b\r \b  \t\b\r­\r\b\r \b
 \b€\b\t\b \t\r\b, ­\b, \bŠ\b …
‚\b‚\b  «„\b€\b\t\r Š\r\b\r» (Ž, Œ \r,
‹\b€\b\t, Œ €\b, …\b \bƒ\t
\t\b \t) \t\n€\r\b \t\b (ƒ, ™\r
\t\n\b\r, …\t\r\b\r, …\r\t€). «• \r\b
\n\t\r \b\b   ­: \t \r\b
\n  \f\r\t\n  ‚\r\n \r\r\b, \t\r\b\r
€\b\r\b Š\r\b\b \r \b\r\t\r 
\t» [2, „.176].
„\r\n\r , ­ \t\r\r \f\n\n\t \b
\n‚\b ˜\b\b \r\t. „\b , ­ \r\b
€\r \n\b\r  \b\t\b\t\r­\b \b
\r‚\b Š\r\b \b\t €\r\r
\b \n \n\n\t. ˆ\f\n \b\r\b\r \r\r
\t\b\b \n\b
 \n
\rƒ\n
\t\r€\n\r
 ‚\r \t \t\b\t \n\b\tŠ\b \b
\r, \bŠ\b \r\b\r
\n\n \n
‚\b \n. \t€  , 
 ‚\b \n\n\t \b\r\t\r\b\b \r\r \t\b
\b \r €\r \n­\r\b \b\r \r \b
\t, \b\r \r\t\b \t, \b\r 
«„\nƒ
\n», « », «\n\n», «\bƒ„», «\n\n»
\b\t. \r\b­  \n­ \t , \r€\n 
\b \r\t\r‚\b‚\b\b \r\t\b \b\r\n\r \t‚\r \t
\b\b \n\n\t [3].
\r\r \r \b , ­
„\t \n
 \n \b\b
\b\n ‚\b\b\b‚\b\b \f
\t€\r €\r­\r\r­\r\b ‚\r\r, \t\r 
\t\r ‚\r \b‚\b \t, \t\b‚\b ‚\b\b
\b\b \t\b. †\r\t‚\b\r \f \r ‚\r\b,
\t\r €‡\r\b  \t. „\r \b\r\b \b\n
\t‚\r \b\r\t‚\b\b‚\b\b \f\b\r, ‚\b
 \r\t\r, \b\b\r \b\n\n\t\r. • \t‚\r, \t\b \r \r
\t\b\t\r­\b\b, \t\r \r\r‚\b  
\n\n…, \r\n
\t\r\t, \b\n\b \n\r\n\t\t†\n
\t\b­ \t
\b\t. †\r\t‚\b\b‚\b \n\n\t ­\r €
\r\b\r \n\n\t ­\r \b\r\b \b\t\n\b­\r,
\r\r\t \t\b\b  ‚\b \n\n\t.
‹‚\b\r \n\n\t\r \f \t\r\r \r
\t
\r\n ,  \n\n
, \b­\b, \t\r\r \r, \b\n
\r, \t\r\b\b\b, €­ \b€\t. „\rŠ\b \t‚\r
\n\r\t\r\b‚\b\b \t\b­ \t €Š\r „„„˜ 
\r€\t \t\r‚\b \r\t‚\b  ‚\b \n\n\t,
\b \n\b\t\b\r, ­Š\r\r  \n \t\b\t\b
« \b\t\b­\r €\b \r \t
». \t\r\b\r ‚\b \n\n\t,  \b\t
\b‚\b, \t\r \t\r  \r\t\r\r\r \r\b
\r\b  \t\r ‚\r\r \n\b, \b\r\b \b\t
 \r\r\b, \t\r \b\r ‚\b-\n\n\t\r 
\r\b\r \t, \r­\r \t\b\t\b ‚\b\b.
‹\t\b, \f \t‚\r €\r\r­\b \n­Š\n  \t\r\b‚\b 
€\r­\r\r­\r\b ‚\r\r,  ­\b\r \b \t\r \b
\r\t‚\b\b,  \n\r\b \b\n, \b\t\b\b
\b\n\n\t\r \t\n\b \t [4].
‘\n\r \r\b\r ˜\b\b ‚\r \b\t „\b€\b\t\b,
­\b \b\t\r \b ­\b\r \n  \t \b\t
 ‚\b\b\b‚\b\b. ¡ ­\r\b\r  \t\r\b\r
\b\r\t\r \t\b‚\b ‚\r \t \n\n\t
\t „\b€\b\t\b \b\t ‚\b\b\b‚\b\b \b
\b \t\b\b \b\r\b \t\n€\r\b \t\b
(ƒ\t\r\r, ƒ\b\r, ƒ, ™\r\t\n\b\r, …\t\r\b\r,
…\r\t€, ™\t\b\b, ¢\b\b).
† Š\r  \b ­\r\b, ­ \t
€\r \t‚\b\b \n \r\b ˜\b\b \b‚\b
 \t\b‚\b \t €Š\r „„„˜ „\b€\b\t\b
  ­ \r€ €\b: \r\b \b\r\b,
\r\b\r \t\b\b  €\t\b \f \r\b
 \t\r\b \r\r\b, \r \t
€\r, \b\b‚\b  \f\n\t\b\b­\r \r\r
\b, \f\t (\r\t),  «ƒ\n\n\t „\b€\b\t\b»
\b«‘\n\r \t\b\b\r ˜\b\b „\b€\b\t\b».
ˆ€ \t \t\t \t\r\b\r \t\t€
\b \b\t\r\r. …\n \f\n\n\t\r \b\r\b\r
\t\b €Š\r „„„˜, \t\r €\b \b\t\b­\r
\t\b  \b­\r \b\b : \b, \n\t\b‚\b,
€\r\t\n\b, \b, \t\r\b\r\b \b 
\t \b\t\n\b\b.
„\r\n\r \b, ­ 90
\r  ——\r Ž
ˆ\t\b\b\tŠ\b \f \t\r\b\b € \n\rŠ \r\r
 
\rƒ\n… \b\f\n
, \n\n\t, \b\n,
\t\b\r\n\t, \t\b‚\b \t\r\b\b\b, \r\f\b­\r\b 
Š\r\b \r\t\t\b\t\b\b \t\r\b, \t\n  \n\r
 ˆ\t\b\r Ž €\b \r ž\n€\r\t
›.
ƒ.
ˆ\r\r.
Ž €\t\r\b\r \f\n\n\t \b\n‚\b\b \b\t\r
 \b\b \r\t\t\b\b \t\b\r\b 
\f\t\r\b\n. ˆ\t\b \b\r\b\r \t \t\b
 ‚\b\b‚\b\b. \r \t\r \r\b \b\t \b
\n\n\t\r \b\b \b­\r\b\r \r\t\r\b, \t\b
\b\b\r \r\r\b \t\n\b  \r \b\n‚\b\b \r­\r
‹\r€\b\b  «\t\r\r \b
\t\r\r \r\b\r ‚\r\r \r \n
\b ¨ \t\r\r œ, \t\n\b\t\b\r \n
\r\t\b. \b\r\b\r \r\b \r\t\r\b\b \b
\r\r\b ­\r\r \r € \b\n ­¨ \r
\b € \b\t\t‚\b \n \b\t€ \b\b
‚\r  \r\t\r\t \b\r €\r\r \t‚\b\r \b€
\r\r \b€\b\r \t\r\b\b Š\r\b» [6].
Ž \b\r\t\t\b\b \t\b Ž ‘\r
\t\n€ €\t\r 2016. ‹\r
«\b\r \r\r
\t\b‚\b\b €‡\r\b\b\b  \t\t€\b \n\b
\b\r \r\t\t\b\b, ‚\r\r \t\b\r\b\r
Problem of broadcast of spiritual heritage of Russia and national traditions of the people of the former USSR
\r\t\r\b  \b\r
\n\r\t \n\t\n\r\t
\b\r 
\t\r\r   \r \b\t \r ‚\b\n
 \b \r  \t\b \b\b \b \r
\t\b\b\r \b\b \r \n€\n\n\t, €\r\r
 €‡\r\b\r\b, \b\r\b, \t\n; \b\r \n\b
\b\b  \r\t \t\b\r\b\t \t\r\r
 ‚\b\n\n\t \n\b \b­\b, \t \b\b\r
‚\b \r\b; \t\b\b\r \t\n\b ‚\b
 \b\b \t \b\r\b \b\t\t€ \r
\b \f \r\b \b\b \t‚\r ‚\b\b‚\b\b
\b­\b  ­\r\r» [7].
 \b\r\n\r \b \t€\r\r \n\b\b\t\n  \r
\n \b\r \t\r\b \r\r\b \t\r\b ‚\b
-\n\n\t \b\r\b:
ˆŠ\r\b\r
\n\r\n \b\f

\b\b
\t\b;
\t\r\b\r
\n \nƒ\n
\n\t\b \t\r\b
 \b\r \t\r\r\b;
\t\r\b\r \t\b‚\b\b \t\b
\n  \n
\f \b\b 
\t\r\b \n\t\b \t\r\b \b\r
\t\r\r\b,  „‹ž, \r \t\b \t \n
\n\t €\r;
\rƒ\n \b\f\f, \n\f \n\n\n\r\f 
\n \n
\r \t\b\b \r \r\b \f
\n\n\t \b\r\b \t\n€\r;
‡\n\t\b\n\n \t\f \n\n \n\n\f 
\n
\t\r\r\b \t \t­\r „\b€\b\t\b
ƒ\t\r\r, ƒ\b\r, ƒ\r, ™\r\t\n\b\b, …\t\r\b\b, …\r\t
€\r, ™\t\b\b, ¢\b\b;
†\r\b\r
 \n\n\n\f „
\b \t\r\b, \bŠ\b …‚\b‚\b  «„\b€\b\t\r 
Š\r\b\r» (Ž, Œ \r, ‹\b€\b\t, Œ
€\b, …\b \bƒ\t\t\b \t) \b\b \b
\b\b \r\n\t \t\n\b­\r\r \b€\r\r;
\b\t\n\r \n „†\n\f 
\t
‚\r\r \b\n­\r\b, \t\r\b \b\t\b\b \t\b­ \b
\t, \t \t\r\r\r \b\t, \t\n\b \b
 \r\r\t\b \r\b, \t\r€\n\r \b‚\r\b
\t\n€\r;
ˆ\r\b\n \b\f \n\t „†
\b\t\b „\b€\b
\t\b  ­\b ˜\b\b Š\r\b\b \t\r\b \r\r \t
\n\n\t \b\t\r;
…\b
\n \b\f \b\b
„\b€\b\t\b \b\t
\n\n\t \t\t\r.
ˆ\t\b \f \r€\b € 
\b\n \nƒ
\n \tƒ \n \n:
\r\b \n\n\t
\t\t, \b\b\b\r, \t\b\b\r \b\t, 
\t\r\b\r ‚\b  \r €\b\b\b,
 \r\t \t\r\t\b, \n\b\r \b\t\n\r\r
Š\r\b, \b\b\r \b\n\r\b\r ‚\b \t
\r\t \b\b \b\t\b­\r \t\b.
‚\t  \n\n \b\f \n
€  \t\b­
\r: 1.  ­\r\b\r €\t\r \t \t \t
­\r \b\b\r €\t\b \f\n\n\t \t\r,
2. «\t\r­ \r\b» (\r\t \r\r 
Š\r\b \b\r \t \n\n\t\r), 3. \f\n\n\t
\b\r\b \b‚\b \b‚\r\t\b‚\b \f\n\n\t ‚\r
\r, 4. €\r\r­\r\b\r \t\r\r\r\b \f\n\n\t
€\t\b\b \b\t \n\n\t\r \t \n\n\t-€
\t\r \b\r, 5. \t\r\b\r \t\b‚\b \r
‚\b \b\r \r\b \t\n€, 6. \b\r
\b\r \f\b­\r\b \t\b\r\b\t \r \n€\n\n\t
\n-\t\r\b \t\b‚\b\b \t \n\n\t,
7. \r\t\r­ \r€\t\b ‚\b \t\r\t \t
„\b€\b\t\b ‚\b-\n\n\t €\r, 8. \b\r
\t \f\n\n\t \t\b\b \t\b­ \t\r\b.
  \t‚\r\r \n  \t \r \r \b
\r \b \t‚\b \t\r\b \b\t\b\r
\b \f\t\r\b\n. Ž  € \r
\t \b\b\r \f\t\r\b \b\r\t\t\t\b, \b«\t\r
\n\t\r\r\b  \r‚\b  \b:
\t\r\r\b\r ‚\b\b­\r\b \b\r\b 
\t \t\b\r\b \f\t\r\b\n,  ­\r\b\r
\t\r\b\r \b\n\b‚\b\r \t\t
\t\b\b  €\t\b \b\b\b  \r\r\t
Š\r\r\b \r\t\t\b\b  \t\b\t\b 
\n\t \r \r\b \n\b\r 
Š\r\b \r \f \b\t\r\b\b;
\n\r\r\b\r \r\t \n\t\r \r\t\b
\b\r \b\b \r\b \r \t\b
‚\b \n, \t\r \b\t\b\b­\r
\b ‚\r\r;
\t\r\r\b\r \b \b\b  \t\b\b,
\b\b \t\n \n
, \r‚\b
\b\r \r\b \t\n€, €\n­\r\b 
 €\r \b €\r\b, \r \n\r
\b  \t\b\r ‚\b \n 
\r\r\b ; \t\b\t\b\r ˜\b ¦\r\r\t‚\b\b
\r \r\b \b\n\t\b \r\b
 \b\r\b ‚\r €\r\r­\r\b \t
 \b\t \b\b;
 ­\r\b\r \t\t \b \t€\b
\n\n\t \b\n­\r\b  \n-\t\r
\n\n\t \t ˜\b ¦\r\r\t‚\b\b» [8].
\r \f\b \r\t \r\n\r ­\b \r\t\r\r\b \b\n
 \t‚\r\r \t‚\b\b \n \r\b ˜\b\b 
\t\b\r \t ‚\b \t\b‚\b \t €Š\r
„„„˜, \r\b\b \t, Š\b\r \t\r\b\r\b 
 \b€\b\t\b \b\t \t\b  \r\t\t\b\t\b\b „\b€\b
\t\b: \r\t ‚\b \t (\f \r\b)
\t\b \b\t €\t, \f-\t\n\r \t\b
‚\b\b, \r\r\r \t\b‚\b\b \t \r\b\b: \t\b\r\r
\b\r \r \t‡\r\b\r, \t\b\n­\r\b\r, \t\r\b\r, €\t\r
\b\r, \n€\r\r\b, \b­ \t\b\r\t,  \b\n\t\r\b,
¨, \n\t, \n\r\b ‚\r  \t\b\t\b \n\r\r
\b\r Š\r\b \t\n\n,  \r\r
\b \r\r \b€\r\r, \n\r \t\b‚\b\b, \t\b‚\b
\r \t \r\r, \r\f\b­\r \b\r
\r\b €\r\b \r\n \t\b „\b€\b\t\b.
Section 4. Cultural studies
\r\f \n\t\n:
Œ\b‚\r
.
ˆ\t\b\t \f\t\r\b//‰¨ \f\t\r\b, €\t\b/ \t\r. ….
›.
ƒ,
– „€.,
„.29.
›\b\b
„.
‰.
‰\r\r \n\t\r\b\r \t\b\r\b\b \f\t\r\b\n ¨ \t\r\r/„.
‰.
›\b\b
//„‚\b-\n\b\t\r \b.
‘\n\n
˜.
„.
…. \r\r «˜\b\b\r \n \n\n\t \n\b ‚\b \t\r\b.»– ‰.,
28.URL:/hp://cheloveknauka.com/
Ž€\r­\r\r­\r\r \b\r, ‚\b\r \b\b\r\t‚\b\r \n\n\t\r URL:/hp://scicenter.online
¡\t
….
‰¨ \t\b \r\t\t\t\b (\t€\r \b\r\t\t\t\b\b­\r ¨ \r\b). ˆ.
¡\t
.//˜\b\b \b\b­\r\b \n\t.
– „.11–15).
ž\t€\n
ƒ.
ž.
Œ\r\t\t\t\b: ‚\b-\b\b­\r\r \b\r\b\r; \t \b/ƒ.
ž.
ž\t€\n.
– Ž: \b-
Ž. . \n-,
– „.367.
– 384.
ƒ\t\n  \t \t \b\b\b \f\t\r\b, \r\t\t\t\b, \r €\b\b \b‚\b\b
URL:/hp://dd.omsk.ru/www/dom-druzhbi.nsf/).
„\r €\r\b ˜¦ URL:/hp://www.scrf.gov.ru/documents/16/130.html).
DOI: hp://dx.doi.org/10.20534/EJHSS-17-2-20-23
Khaladdin So‰yev,
PhD on culture study, assistant professor,
Še head of the department of «Social and Political Sciences»
of Azerbaijan State University of Culture and Art
E-mail: so‰[email protected]
in culture study
Abstract:
In modern Azerbaijani culturology activization of methodological direction will serve to appearing of
deconstructive potential. Taking gures and events, which are the components of culture, asvalues andinformation,
there appears demandin refusal fromvulgar maer and materialimagination. Cultureis also the history of conno
tation ofvalues and symbols. Connotativeimportance ofvalues and symbolsis there additional meaning. Positive
connotation of the words, as “value”, “crisis”, “decadence”, “civilization” and “modern” has turned theminto the terms
with considerable methodological result.
Keywords:
eidos, value, aporia, a priori, mind.
ere are almost no researchesin Azerbaijan culture study
which cause large discussions with the used concepts. “Cul
ture” is said to have hundreds of denitions. It means that as
the cultureis avery complex event, itis hard to collectitinto
a compact concept. And as what can beincluded causes a seri
ous “objection” of what has not been collected, itis not con
sidered sucient. e wide-spread denition of the culturein
Azerbaijanisits being a world of material and moral activities.
At this time, solution of the material activityin Marxist wayis
especially emphasized. However, there are also those who con
sider our culture the collection of theinformationinherited
[1, P. 394–395]. is lastinterpretation opens up new tonesin
the phenomenon of culture, for example, it allows the concept
of “culture” to take as a collection ofinformation. In this case,
materialvalues also areinterpretedin the form ofinforma
tion. However, no one from us get accustomed to look at the
machines and buildings asinformation. Primitive ancestors
of such persons considering the air not material substance,
related the soul with the breath (“nefesh” inIbrani) [2, P. 31].
Itis due to hegemony of the substance that Marx said: the sub
stance cursed the soul [3, P. 29]. Primitive man’simagining the
soul as a smoke and puing the gods asidolsin the templesis
related with the cause that Marksindicates.
In theXX century Bergson built hisintuitive- irrational
philosophy onviolation of hegemony of substance on culture
without reminding Marx’s ne article, i.
e. in fact, he reported
material, substance and methodological deconstruction. His
main accusation against materiality of the mind and culture
was the fact that out concepts were formedin the form of
soliditems. In addition to Bergson, we can say that even the
word “eydos” underlying on the basis of the Greek word “idea”
was also cursed by material.
“Eydos” earlier also conveyed typical appearance ofitems
and things, only aerwardsin the process of usageit began to
express the essential peculiarities of theitems hidden behind
their appearance and transformedinto the unity of a word and
in culture study
meaning. Later, it developed more andidea began to convey
not any concept, but only the concepts projected to reality and
tended to create a real change andin this meaning began to
get closer withidealsin this sense. But no maer how dearis
the word “idea” for the philosophy, it has not said farewell to
“eydos” anditsvariant “eydedizm”. Husserlin his philosophy
turned this wordinto a term [4, P. 337], A.
F.
Losev made
“eydedizm” the name of the expressive, vividimagesin his
“History of Antique aesthetics” [5, P. 226–236] and with
this once again deployed secretimpact of phenomenology
to Soviet philosophy. Takinginto consideration signicance
of the term “eydedizm” in culture study, we should keep this
conceptin our mind and remindit whenis to the point.
If once again to return to Bergson, we should say that the
French philosopher concluded from the concepts beingin
the form of soliditems that they cannot be able to show the
changing world shown by Heraclitus adequately. Human
mind and culture are ªcursed” by so many soliditems that the
art and culture do not form piece of art andvalue from so
and runnyitems [6, P. 1].
Positivist philosophy of theXIX century opposing to
the hegemony of the materialism replaced the material with
energy and thus, Marxist- Leninist philosophyin order to
rescue the material had to make dierentintellectual maneu
vers. One of them was the denition of the material given
by the founder of Bolshevism Lenin. In order to protect the
materialism from the next surprises of physics which could
put the material under doubt, he stated that materialis an
objective creature. In other words, its signis not solidness
and weight. e main sign ofitisits existence regardless of
consciousness. atis, material should not be the phantom of
consciousness [7, P. 29]. However, this “invention” of Lenin
could not stand against critics. Because, animals’ psychology
exists regardless of a human consciousness, howeverit refers
not to material, but toideal. So, asit seems theidea of culture
being the collection ofinformation was not just an ordinary
denition, becauseit required a newview to the concept of
materialvalue. Only aer targeting the concept of materi
alvalue by methodological analysisit becomes clear that all
the structurizeditems and things arrangedin accordance with
the rules are alsoinformation [8, P. 36–38]. So, whatisin
cluded to the cultureisinformation. is thesisinits turn
gives a birth to new derivations and diversication. einfor
mation puts forward theissue of noise, surplusinformation
and the degree ofinformativeness. e mostimportantis
that the strongest way to protect the moralvaluesis their
constant reection. Culture study (as art study) shouldinevi
tably project semantic-contextual layers ofvalues to dierent
conceptsin order to preserve that content.
Tusi revealed the dierence between moral and materi
alvaluesin the following way: the rst ones are geing fewer,
get older as much as they are used, whereas the second ones
are enriched as much as they are used. Fuzuli also has avariant
of thisidea: the world of wordsis not a treasure of a king to
decrease whenitis used [10, P. 72].
Indeed, a knife metaphor became richer as much asit was
usedin culture. It became a weapon as a Japan and French
sword and contributedits symbols to knighthood and samu
rai culture. is symbolis disclosed to Oghuz with such a
sayingin “Dada Gorgud” saga: “A man loses his honor either
because of a sword or because of meal” [11, P. 20]. e main
principle for samuraisin sword techniques was to take the
sword and stabin one motion. erefore, quickness and u
entness should be together. Musasi who livedin theXVII cen
tury showedin his book on ghting rules: if you and your en
emy aack to each other at the same time, cut his head, hands
and feet with one motion of a sword and then go. is blowis
“anincessant blow”. Musasi added to his book “35articles on
sword-play”. In those articles, he, for example, wrote: most of
the people look at the eyes of the enemy. But at this time the
eyes should be narrower than they are, and the consciousness
should be wider thanitisin usual time. When the enemyis
close to you, look at him as though you look to far away, this
time you can see all his body [12, P. 114–115].
Taking the culturalvalues asinformation or text em
phasizes communicative aspectin culture. If a novelis never
read, thenit remains as a material, i.
e. as the paper. For this
reason, the academician Kamal Abdullain his book “Author-
work-reader” which he publishedin 1988took the prosein
a communicative trio, i.
e. “addresser- text-addressee” chain.
With this, the scholar showed that the proseis a prose with
the consciousness of the reader and so, meets all criteria of
an art work. e analysesin the book were not the soul of
the dead materials, but the analyses of the art works hav
ing their soul and life, becausein these works the spirit of
the recipient was felt. Without that soul the text does not
turninto paper and cardboard [13, P. 37]. As well as, a ring
or a bracelet will remain as a gold metal without any aesthetic
signicanceif the humanity will disappear. In Soviet period
M.
S.
Kagan and L.
N.
Stolovich brought a seriousinnova
tion to theissue of objectiveness and subjectivity by applying
axiology to an art and culture [14, P. 30–31; 39–45]. ey
showed that thevalueis not things anditems. evalueis
a cultural event occurring from the contact of theitem and
the consciousness of a man comprehendingit. When culture
study reected the concept ofvalue with the help of axiol
ogy, it was engagedin methodological research. Notingitin
any case, we should say that once the cultural events and facts
are calledinformation, the concept ofvalue of the unity that
passes theinformation and that receivesit projectsit to the
unity of what comes from nature to what comes from subject.
However, at this time, the question still remains open: if the
componentsin thevalue coming from the nature are material
reality, then howit can be calledincomplete from the point
ofview of culture? When this questionis asked about beauty,
it becomes clearer. ere was a time when beauty was related
with symmetry and proportionality. It came out that as the
weightisinherent to theitemin an objective way, then beauty
alsoisinherent to nature withits symmetry and proportional
ity. Later methodological analyses of thevaluesin aesthetics
Section 4. Cultural studies
led to such a thought that symmetry and proportionalityin
beauty serve to expressivity of a form. But beauty appears
when this expressive form reveals to a humanin animpres
sive way. us, the beautyis not only physical parameters,
but also the meanings coming from the human world. It was a
revolutionaryview denyingvulgar objectiveness and material
ism related with aesthetics and culture. We would like to add
that theview that we have stated was formed approximately at
the same period with the analogical thoughtin nature study.
If the culture covers all forms and consequences of human
actions, then swearngs are also cultural facts. Because ofit,
“swearing culture” of a nationis a normal scientic phrase.
us, the swearing are also culturalvalues. Butis that correct
to call them uncultured?!
e proposal of using the term “anti-value” in relation with
these cultural facts does not solve the problem, it just “covers”,
because “anti-value” takes the swearing, ghts, hatreds out of the
human culture, i.
e. declares them uncultured. Butif they are un
cultured facts, then they refer to the nature. However, no one can
think of proposing to study swearing and bad manners according
to the laws of physics or astronomy. Itis not hard to demonstrate
that uncultured andimmoral events can be analyzed only accord
ing to culturological methods. erefore, the serious problem of
the culturological methodologyis to bring clearnessinto theissue
of negativevalues. In the science there are Zeno’s aporias, “rid
dles” in the type of “Barber” paradox which have not found their
resolution [15, P. 150–151]. evalueissuein culture studyis
such a paradox of a science that waits forits resolution.
In connection of psychology with a brain, its placementin
a brain has serious epistemological and methodological prob
lem. American philosopher and psychologist William Jamesin
his work “Pragmatism” said that a prisoner under a glass dome
can think that the light comes from this dome. Just as we have
a habit to think that the consciousness comes from the brain.
However, thereis another way of thinking whichis based on
a logic that the consciousnessis given to us by means of brain,
butitis not a product of brain. Such a metaphorindicates
to thisidea: when one of the wheels of a watchis broken,
the watch will not show the time. But we cannot conclude
fromit that this wheel makes the time run. So, if a man loses
his speech due to a damage of a part of a brain, it does notin
dicate thatit was namely that part which produced the speech
[16, P. 37–38].
us, the culturalvalues, information does not exist out
side the human consciousness. e old question related with
a beauty keepsits topicalityin regard to culture also. If the
humanityis destructed, if the humanity which admires ow
ers, thinks over meaning of the sacral worldin pyramidsis
destructed, will those owers and those pyramids remain as
monuments transferring beauty andinformation? Of course,
they will not, what will remainis the structure of theinfor
mation and component of avalue coming from a nature.
Karl Yung stated: as the state of mindis not managed by
means of a will, itis a nature. Because ofit, itisimpossible
to turnitinto something of artifact character without hurt
ing a man [17, P. 84]. ese words open a signicantissue
for a culture study. In the concept of culture, usually, what
comes from the nature and whatis taken from the nature are
considered material facts. Spiritual qualities (thoughts, mean
ings, feelings) are considered coming from a human, a society.
However, this divisionis absolutely wrong. Actually, itis right
that a human as a social creature has such moral and mental
qualities for which he should be grateful to a social world.
But evenin a psychological and spiritual world of a human
the nature has a strong representation. We even do not talk
about the biological remains hiddenin deep layers of purely
spiritual circumstances. e subconscious world of a humanis
a nature fact. A series of biological requirements of a humanis
also nature facts.
Yet we do not speak about congenitalideas which have
never been deniedin the philosophy. Descartes told that the
human has such kind ofideas. Kant’s aprior forms are anoth
ervariant of congenital knowledge. In contemporary time the
linguist Khomskiy returning to congenital knowledge once
again put forward such a hypothesis that the bases of speaking
abilityis congenital [18, P. 18]. Meeting of the nature with the
psychology have this kind of problems.
References:
Lotman
Y.
M.
Semisphere. Culture and bang. Inside the thinking worlds. Researches. Notes. Saint-Petersburg «Art-SPB»,
– 703p.,
– P. 394–395; Lotman
Y.
M.
Articles on semiotics and topology of culture. Selected worksin threevol
umes,
– V. 1.
– Tallinn: Alexandra,
– P. 247.,
– P. 9. Drach
G.
V.
Culture study: for bachelors and specialists. SPb.:
Piter,
– P. 384.
Noel Smith. Modern systems of psychology. SPB.: Prime-Euroznak,
– P. 384.
Marx
K., Engels
F., Contrast of materialistic toidealisticviews– P.15–81.//Germanideology. Moscow, State Publishing
House of Political Literature,
– Works.,
– 2nd edit.,
– V. 3,
– P. 629.
Kolesnikov
A.
S.
History of philosophy. SPB., Piter,
– P. 650.
Mehdi
N.
A.
F.
Impacts of Losev to Azerbaijan philosophy//Modern philosophy and Azerbaijan.
B.: «Science»,
– 2011,
P. 489.
Bergson
A.
Creative evolution,
– V. 1.,
– Saint-Petersburg. Rus publishing house.
– ought,
– P. 331.
Philosophy
L.
F.,
– P. 2.
– ‰.: MSUI,
– P. 350.
Pereverzev
L.
B.
Art and Cybernetics.
– ‰.: Art,
– P. 150.
Tusi
N. Kh. Akhlagi– Nasiri.
B.: Science,
– P. 256.
in culture study
Guluzada
M. On Fuzuli’s theoretical thoughts about poetry.
– P. 59–80//Mahammad Fuzuli. Scientic-research articles.
Editor: Akram Jafar.
– Baku, Azerbaijan State Publishing House,
– P. 386.
Kitabi-Dada Gorgud.
B.: Ganjlik,
– P. 182.
Winston
L.
King. Dzhen and the way of a sword. Experience of comprehension of samurai psychology.
– Saint-Petersburg.
– P. 146.
Abdullayev
K.
Author- work-reader,
– Baku, Yaz®ch®,
– P. 156.
Stolovich
L.
N.
Nature of aestheticvalues.
– ‰.: Political literature,
– P. 271.
Philosophy
A.
Y.
Part 1. Subject of philosophy. Ontology.
– Odessa: Science and Technology,
– P. 196.
Spirkin
A.
G.
Consciousness and self-awareness.
– ‰.: Political literature.
– P. 303.
Yung
K.G Analytic psychology.
– ‰.: Martis.
– P. 399.
Stepanov
G.
V.
PanlovV.
Ontology of language as a social phenomenon.
– ‰.: Science,
– P. 309.
DOI: hp://dx.doi.org/10.20534/EJHSS-17-2-24-26
Gatiba Chingiz Mahmudova,
PhD, Associate Professor
National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan
Leading researcher of the department of Turkic languages
E-mail: [email protected]
A comparative analysis of the ways of word-formation
Abstract:
e dierentiation of derivational axesin the Turkic languages on the semantic elds are discussedin
the article. In the Turkic languages, not all lexical axes areinvolvedin the process of derivation with the same
manner. For the rst time the formation of wordsin dierent languages, with dierentvalues by means ofidentical
derivational (lexical) axes are discussedin this article.
Keywords:
derivational axes, derived words, dierentiation of semantic areas, the Turkic language.
Since thevery rst day that the human being began to speak
and communicate there emerged a need for formation of new
words. As the cultural level of the nations raised, science and
technology developed, the new words have been brought to the
language.To drop a word from the literary language takes the na
tion away fromits ancient history and national culture. Because
ofit, itis not a good tendency to extract the words of Arabian
and Persian origin which have been usedin our language for
thousand years and already become naturalized and to replace
them with new words. Butitis also an undeniable fact that no
language can remainin a stagnant state. Changes take placein
every language. And this processisinevitable.
Nothingis so similar to the tree like the language. Just
like the trees the languages also periodically drop the leaves
which have lost their color and grow new ones. e leaves of
the language are words.
Word formation emerges as the way of meeting the need
existingin the language. Time by time as the new words ap
pearin accordance with arising needs, simultaneously some
words can drop o from the language. For example, there used
to be a lot of wordsin our language which were usedin the
latest century, but are no longer being used, and also there are
a lot of lexical units and phrasesin our present-day language
which did not existedin the previous centuries.
Field of linguistics which studies the new words com
inginto the languageis called word formation. Word forma
tionis the way of creating new wordsin dierent ways. In
modern Turkic languages the process of word formationis
realizedin dierent ways. In the current article the ways of
word formationin Azerbaijan and Turkish languages will be
studied, as well as their similar and dierent features will be
analyzedin a comparative way.
“Together with the morphological and syntactic ways of
word formation, also reductions (abbreviations), revitaliza
tion of archaic words, change of the semantic meaning, word
borrowing from other languages, word formation by a pho
netic way and other ways of word formation are highlightedin
the grammar books which have been published recently”
[1, 5]. ereis no source where all of these enumerated word
formation ways are studied all together. Marcel Erdalis re
searching this topic widely [2]. Although the basics of the
workis word formation by a morphological way, synthetic
way of word formation, word borrowing from other languages,
word formation by back and front assimilation have also been
talked about here. Word formationin Azerbaijan languageis
dividedinto 3groups: word formation by a lexical way; word
formation by morphological way; word formation by syntac
tic way. Almost all linguists engagedin word formation have
used this division.
S.
Jafarov who for the rst timewidely
studied word formationin Azerbaijan linguistics refers to the
lexical way of word formation the followings: new words cre
atedin the account of dialects and accents; in the account of
borrowed words; in the account ofimplication of new mean
ings, by change of the phonetic composition, simplication of
derivative and compound words [3, 135].
While talking about word formationin other Turkic lan
guages, only morphological and syntactic ways of word forma
tion are meant. Phonetic and lexical ways of word formation
almost are not spoken about.Itis strange that the scholars
who make researches on Turkish language while talking about
word formation speak only about derivative and compound
words. Majority of the works wrien on this topic even do
notinclude compound words. Only professor Sh.
Akalinin
his researches talks about dierent ways of word formation.
A comparative analysis of the ways of word-formation
One of the richest ways of the word formationin Turkic
languagesis word formation by means of suxes. Word for
mationin this wayis an unchangeable rule of Turkish word
formation. Mainly productive suxes are usedin morphologi
cal way of words formation. Sometimes less productive sux
also can bringvitality to the language.
Word formation by means of axationis the most
wide-spread way of word formationin Turkish and Azerbai
jan languages which are aqlutinativ languages.Most part of
thevocabulary of the Turkish language consists of the words
made by means of lexical suxes. e words created newly
by adding suxes to the stem or beginning form of the word
arevery oen topicin the works and trainings on grammar.
In morphological way of word formation word-forming suf
xes are mostly studied. Almost 300lexical suxes existin
Turkish language.
In Azerbaijan language there exist about 200word-form
ing suxes. Most of them refer to the derivative names. Since
the middle of theXIX century, lexical suxes of Azerbaijan
language began to become the object of researches. ese
researches began with MirzaKazimBey, Budagov, Lazarev,
Vazirov, Mirza Mammad Afshar, and later continued with
S.
Jafarov. KazimBeyin his both books gives more than
20forms of nouns derived from theverb [3, 57].
However, word formationin morphological way does not
meet the need for new wordsin the language. New words are
also created by means of combining two words. To create a new
word by forming word groupsis also one of the ways of word
formation. is way makes a new concept byimplicating a new
semantic meaning to the words already existingin the language.
isis avery natural way usedin meeting requirements for new
conceptsin this language. In this type of words the concept
orideais conveyed not only by a single word, but also by means
of several words. Butit also can be that word groups are not
enough for conveying the new conceptin the language.
Conveying the meaning of the new words by word groups
has comeinto beingin the latest centuries. is traditional
wayis strongerin Turkish language. For example: Let’s pay
aention to the samples:
yerçekimi, han‹meli, sesbilgisi; bey
azpeynir, aç‹kgöz, topluiŒne; eliaç‹k, ayakyal‹n, günübirlik,
s‹rt‹pek; gelebilmek,, ç‹tç‹t, günayd‹n; ateŽkes, denizalt‹, elalt‹,
gözalt‹, suçüstü, olaŒanüstü, insanüstü, gökdelen, demiryolu =
demiryolu, buzlucam, kal‹nbaŒ‹rsak, doŒumevi, “genelkurmay”,
TDK.
Turkish Dictionary (edition 11).
– Ankara: Turkish LanguageInstitute Publications,
Nishanyan
S.
Etymological Dictionary of Modern Turkish language, Istanbul: Everest publications,
°mer K., Kojaman
A., Ozsoy
A.
S.
Linguistics Dictionary, Istanbul Bogazici University Press,
DOI: hp://dx.doi.org/10.20534/EJHSS-17-2-26-28
Ibadova Lala,
AUL, Azerbaijan
E-mail: [email protected]
Linguaculturological and Linguaphilosophical
Integration
of Arabism’s
Abstract:
e article has been wrien on the basis of comparative-typological methodin the study of the lan
guages (Arabic and Spanish languages) belonging to dierent language systems (Arabic belonging to semiotic type
of languages, and Spanish belonging to the analytical type of languages. e main goal ofinvestigationis to discover
Arabisms which entered the Spanish language system and explain the conditions, causing the entrance andintegra
tion of Arabism’sinto the Spanish language system.
Keywords:
Semitic languages, linguaculturological, linguaphilosophical, national culture.
Introduction.
In the latest period the fact that lexic
units belonging to foreign languages entered the European
languages, including the Spanish language, being closely
linked with the existing processes taking placein the world,
is of specialimportance. Borrowing of foreignisms under
theinuence of widely spreading of extra linguistic factors
occurredin several aspects:
rstly, as a result of wideningintergovernmental links,
spreading ofinformation strengthened and became richer;
secondly, dierent aspects of changes taking placein all
the elds of social-political life of modern Spain;
thirdly, itis entrance ofintegration processesinto active
phasein the economic space of the world, in which a number
of terms bearinginternational character act dynamicallyin
the above-mentioned eld. At present migration process from
other countries towards Europeis taking place and along with
this, integration of languagesis taking place as well. To day, in
the dynamically developing society, tendency tointernation
alization andintegration of human beingsin dierent elds of
activityin the worldis more conspicuous. In the actual stage
of development of many-sided relations with other countries
turned theimportance of the language communication to a
great realityin the human society.
Arabic languagein the afroacian language micro scheme
belongs to semiotic languages. Semitic languages, belong to the
language family usedin the near and middle East andin North
Africa. At the modern stage the bearers of the Arabic languages
are of greaterinterest. e number of speakers of the Arabic
languagein daily communicationis more than 420millions of
people and related to this, thereis no doubt that the Arabic
languagesinuencing on the other languages of the world nd
their active usagein other languages as well. In this respect,
study of Arabic borrowingsin the Spanish languageis of both
theoretical and practicalimportance. Entrance of Arabism’sinto
the European language, especiallyinto Spanish language might
be of moreinterestif Arabic language, whichis not understand
able for the Europeans, did not preventit. Despite this, active
bilinguism, existing between the Spanish and Arabic languages
continuing for centuries, which possess dierent language struc
tures, shows the one- sidedinuence of the Arabic language on
the Spanish language on the lexic level. As a result of thisin
uence, Arabic wordsin the notable degree have subjected to
both phonetic and orthographic changes of rules andin the later
stages this process covered the grammatical and semantic elds
as well. In the modern nationalvariant of the Spanish language,
the borrowed words from the Arabic languages are not only
purely linguistic phenomenon, but alsoitis linguaculturological
phenomenon, whichis conditioned by the cognition of world
panorama of language speakers. As new lled of knowledge, res
toration of world panorama anditsinterpretation substantiates
the anthropocentrisms of humanitarian knowledge and as an
article these notes determine the urgency of ourinvestigation.
Historical condition of spreading Arabism’s.
In the
middle ages the Arabs who turned to one of the leading powers,
played moreimportant rolein the development of the world
of middle ages. First of all, Arabic tribesinvaded Arabic pen
insular and mainly were busy with cale breeding and plough
ing and also went on capturing productive territories of other
peoples and were also engagedin trading and commerce. In
theVII centuryin the lives of the Arabs averyimportant event
took place: development of trading bore anintensive charac
ter and Middle Age Arabic language was founded. Justin this
period the Arabs presented to the world a new religion-Islam.
Khilafet, establishing the Arab state, on the account of occupa
tion of dierent tribes continuously widenedits borders. By
giving new names to the dwelling localities, which were gained
as a result of occupation of territories of other countries, they
created namesin their own language as well (Aleppo, Sudan
Linguaculturological and Linguaphilosophical
Integration of Arabism’s
etc.). Itis worth mentioning that Spain was under the Arabic
supremacy for 781years (711–1492).
In the midst of theVIII century, the territories which were
under the occupation of the Arabic Khilaphet, starting from
the shores of the Atlantic Ocean, including Asia, Africa and
Europe stretched till the borders of China andIndia. In the
occupied territories the Arabsintegrated with the living con
ditions of native people and without changing their religion,
they oered them to pray religion ofIslam.
Arabic envisionsin theVII–IX centuries made the Ara
bic language known to theinternational community. Lexical
units from the far Arabian countries continued their creative
activity on the foreign lands. ese words entered the lo
cal languages, mixed with them, sometimes lost theinitial
pronunciation and meaning of the words andin most cases
theyindicated the names of objects and notions, which were
unknown to the local people. In this respect, ifin theinitial
stages the linguists wereinterestedin the formal sides of the
language, namely, in morphology and phonetics, later on they
wereinterestedin syntax as well. Speaking of the lexic units
we must mention that aention was focused only on word-
forming processes.
Linguaculturological and linguaphilosophical
aitudes\bin the borrowings from Arabic language.
In
theinvestigation the reasons of entering Arabism’sinto other
languages, application of sciences of linguaculturology and
linguaphilosophy, to the elds, which are not linked with lin
guistics might be moreimportant.
We must note that learning of any languageis closely
connected with learning of the culture of the people, because
as the culture of this or that nation ndsits reectionin the
language
“we understand our culture with the culture of other
people by the way of comparison of these culturesvia languages”
[1]. anks to theinterest of language and culturein theXX
century a new directionin the language, called
“linguacultur
ological”
was created [1]. is eld considers the language as
a eldin which linguaculturalinformation was collected and
protected, thus, connection between culture and languageis
undeniable. In theinvestigation of [2; 3; 4] and others, bor
rowings are studied from the linguaculturologicalview points.
Linguaculturological aspect considers the entrance of foreign
lexical units and the ways; they bring with themselves cultur
ologicalinformation, peculiar to the source language.
“In the
language of national culture bothinternational and national and
social and class factors ‰nd their re‘ections”
4.    Study of borrowings.
Any wordin a textis the bearer
of historical-culturalinformation. In this respect, as any lan
guage phenomenon borrowings too are considered as a result
of mutualinuence of cultures on one another and creation
of new notionsin a language must bevalued as the result of
exchange among cultures [6].
Itis also worth mentioning thatintellectual and more de
velopment of a nation ndsits reectionin the culture of that
nation and as a result, thanks to the borrowed new lexical units
the language which borrows words, gets acquainted with the
cultural heritage of the language, from which the words are
borrowed [7].
e American linguist and culturologist of theXX centu
ry E.
Sepir (1884–1939) noted that the pieces ofinformation
which these borrowings discover
“give well enoughinformation
for the measures of time notion, for the dimension and character
ofin‘uence of di erent foreign cultures”
View points of philosophers on the borrowed words are
ofinterest too. For eg. Greek philosopher Plato noted that,
itisimpossible to gain any resultin the determination of the ori
gin of any word, then thevery word can be considered as a bor
rowed word. us, the philosopher, saying these words meant
thatin the materials of the language, which borrow words, the
etymology of the borrowed word can’t be coordinated.
One of the philosophers who said thatin a language, itis
necessary to see more except the subject of the linguistic analy
sis of a language (closed system of autonomous signs, acting as
toits own objective laws, not depending on the foreign realities)
is Martin Haydegter. He pointed out that aer having distin
guished the borrowingsin the language, which borrows words; a
linguist going deeperinto the historic realities says
“we are swim
ming within the foreign words”.
As to him, study of borrowings
consists of the analysis of words not being native wordsin the
language, which may bring to their sources and to the
“beginning
of the history of their homeland, with which going backinto the depth
of our history, we gain the possibility to build up our future”
5.    Conclusion.
e thesis on the ground of the political
and linguistic, panorama of the worldis urgent and studying
the problem of borrowings which are linked with dierent
elds of science, including linguaculturology and linguaphi
losophyis extremelyimportant today.
We may come to the conclusion that borrowings being
linguistic problem can be determined as a historical process
going on for centuries. On the example of the Arabic borrow
ing we may come to the conclusion that Arabic borrowingsin
the Spanish language startedits realizationin 711since the
Arabicinvasion of Spain, up to the present time.
Any word anin any textis the bearer of historical-cultur
alinformation.
Some of the most frequently used borrowings areillus
trated with the examplesin the both Arabic and Spanish lan
guages to show how wide the scope of borrowings are and how
they are linked with linguaculturalogy and linguaphilosophy.
References:
Khrolenko
A.
T.
Bases of linguaculturology [Text]: textbook/A.
T.
Khrolenko.
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Novikova
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B.
Borrowings of cultural consepts (on the material of the English and Russian languages} [Text]: abstract of
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MaslovaV.
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A.
Maslova.
M.: Academy,
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Gromova, O.
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defended on 24.06.04./O.
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Gromova-Kemerovo– 2004,
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Khaydegger
M.
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DOI: hp://dx.doi.org/10.20534/EJHSS-17-2-28-31
Nikiforova Olena,
Candidate for a Degree, Research Assistant
MilitaryInstitute of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv
E-mail: [email protected]
Military-Political Translation
the Theory of Military Translation
Abstract:
e article considers military-political translationin the context of the theory of military translation,
denesits place among other types of military translation. e functions performed by the military-political texts have
been analysed as well as genre and stylistic features, a denition of military-political translation has been formulated
to establish averbal model of military-political translation.
Keywords:
theory of military translation, military-political translation, military-political texts.
Introduction.
e state policyin the domain of security,
defence and military organizationis the guarantor of Ukraine’s
development as anindependent and full-edged member of
the world community. Under current conditions national mili
tary policy aects all life areas of the state. Military reality has
been way beyondinterests of military specialists and extended
over the other areas of social life. Involvement ofvolunteer,
governmental and non-governmental, foreign andinternational
organizations prove this fact. ereis anintensive search for
new forms of military-politicalinternational cooperation, as
forinstance, the establishment of the Defence Reform Advisers
Board under the Reform Commiee of the Ministry of Defence
and the Armed Forces of Ukraine represented by leading world
countries. New concepts, doctrines and strategies are being de
veloped with due regard to theinternational experience and
realities of nowadays. is leads tointensication of practice of
militaryinterpretation and translation, requires generalization
and theoretical understanding of the accumulated empiric ma
terial, further scientic substantiation of the theory of military
translation (TMT) as well as stipulates theincreasing role of
military and military-political translation (MPT) in the sphere
ofintercultural communicative mediatorial activity.
e rationale
of researching MPTis caused by the need
to process the accumulated empiric material as the result of
active military translation practicein the eld of military poli
cy, dynamic development of the theory of military translation,
the necessity to develop and systematize conceptual apparatus
of this special translation theory.
e article\bis aimed
to dene place of MPTin the mili
tary translation system, specify functional and genre and sty
listic features of military-political texts, formulate the concept
of “military political translation” within the conceptual ap
paratus of TMT.
A review of recent papers
suggests that MPT has not been
studied holistically as a specic type of military translation, al
though, some genres of military-political texts were targets of
thesis researches. In particular, noteverbale, information report
[1], Defence Code (Code de la Défense), Instruction Manual of
the General Sta of the Armed Forces of France, the Parliamen
tary Assembly of the Council of Europe Resolution and Recom
mendation [2], military-political periodical publications, UN
and NATO peacekeeping operations’ military documentation
[3] were researched as ocial style texts without being referred
to the specic type of military translation.
O.Yu. Solodiak tried to distinguish the concept of “mil
itary-political style” as a form based on the aachment of
certain quality characteristics to texts functioningin the mili
tary-political sphere of human activity, and which containsin
Military-Political Translation
in the Context of the Theory of Military Translation
formation (speeches, reports, statements, messages), analyti
cal (annual publications, program reviews) and regulating
(acts, pacts, treaties, directives) genres [4, P. 338]. e author
also operated such concepts as “military-political genre” and
“military-political text”, but did not give a denition.
Presentation of basic material of the research
e development of the general translation studiesisim
possible without an analysis of translation types and consid
eration of theirinternal characteristics and relationships [5, P.
225]. V.
N.
Komissarov singled out three factors that should be
consideredin describing certain types of translation. Firstly, the
mere reference of the source text to a specic functional style
may aect the nature of the translation process and require
translator to apply special methods and techniques. Secondly,
the focus on such source text may stipulate stylistic character
istics of the target text, and thus the necessity to choose such
language means that characterize similar functional stylein the
target language. Ultimately, as a result of theinterplay of these
two factors, thevery translation peculiarities may be manifest
ed and connected with both common features and dierences
between language features of the similar functional stylesin the
source and target language, and special conditions and tasks of
such type of translation [6, P. 109].
According toV.
V.
Balabin, TMTis a special genre-and-
style theory because the translation/interpretation media
tionin the armed forcesis primarily performedin the area of
linguistic and speechvariability of texts with combined-arms,
military-political, military-technical and military-special topi
cality [7, P. 104]. e author points out that the concept of
military-political translation belongs to the basic concepts of
TMT that have been successfullyveriedin the expert envi
ronment of scholars, educators and practitioners of military
translation, and consistently presented to the scientic com
munity over the last fourteen years. From this perspective we
may state that concepts “military-political translation” and
“military-political texts” belong to the main concepts of TMT
and therefore require comprehensive research, analysis and
well-grounded denition.
e current status of scientic researchin the area of
TMTin Ukraine has been thoroughly analyzedin the article
“Prerequisites for the establishment of the academic school of
military translationin Ukraine” [8, P. 111–114].
Some authors address concepts of “military-political
translation” and “military-political texts” in the context of
socio-political translation. According to L.
L.
Nelyubin, mili
tary-political materials are military only by their purposeful
ness and topics and, in general, possess the same features as
those of all socio-political texts [9, P. 11]. With regards to
military-publicistic and military-scientic texts, R.
K.
Minyar-
Beloruchev also believes, that their formal characteristics co
incide with similar materials from other areas of life and have
been highlightedin a range of publications extensively enough
[10, P. 11]. To a certain extent this relationship may be sub
stantiated by the fact that military domain belongs to the so
cial one as a part to the whole, becauseitis anintegral sphere
of public life. However, it should be noted that the listed state
ments of such honourable scientists and translation studies
experts as L.
L.
Nelyubin and R.
K.
Minyar-Beloruchev were
presentedin scientic works for more than 35years ago. e
TMT has beenin constant development during this period
and the sublanguage of military-political texts has undergone
signicant changes, reectingin the relevance of complex
analysis of this type of translation. MPT has acquiredits char
acteristics and features under theinuence ofvarious social
and political events and phenomena allowing to distinguishit
as a separate type.
Let us consider features of socio-political translation to
correlate them with MPT.
According to the functional and communicative orien
tationV.
V.
Alimov distinguishes literary, special and socio-
political (general) translation as a separate typeincluding
socio-political and publicistic texts [11, P. 26]. In terms of
the adequacy achievement this type of translation has features
of both literary and special translation [11, P. 27]. MPTisin
herited only with the special translation features.
Socio-political translationis usually addressed within
the publicistic style andis represented by the following texts:
statements, speeches and addresses of national leaders, po
litical and public gures, publications ofinternational, gov
ernmental and non-governmental organizations, various
socio-political articles, etc. e distinctive features of these
textsinclude notions of propaganda and campaigning, vivid
emotional colouring, saturation with dierent terminology,
and addressing a wide audience, indicating the open public
nature of these texts.
Military-political texts, as opposed to socio-political ones,
are focused on the narrower, more professional audience, and
characterized by functional parameters that usually do not en
visage emotional and expressiveimpact on the addressee. Ex
ceptions are genres of military-publicistic texts which belong
to MPT as a separate sub-type according to our classication
(e.
g. speeches and statements of higher military authorities,
interviews, anti-terrorist operation press centre news, briengs
of the ministry of defence spokesperson, articlesin military
periodical publications, news from ocial websites of military
structures) that should be subject toindividual research due
to the accumulation of the sucient empirical basis. Subse
quent to G.
M.
Strelkovskiy, we deem emotionality and expres
sivityin these texts to be aained byindirect means, by the
frequent repetition of the sameidea, but using dierent lexis
with a gradualinvolvement of additional argumentation that
gives narrative an expressive tone, transforms the content un
derstanding to the area of emotional perception, contributes
to the formation of certain convictions [12, P. 122].
In ourviewit makes more sense to research MPT within
military, rather than socio-political translation.
Genre and style classicationis generally recognizedin
Translation Studies which makesit possible to single out liter
ary andinformative translation. Depending on the functional
style of the source textinformative translationis dividedinto
subtypes. Further typologyis made based on the prevalence
of certain stylistic features (as wording, structural common
ality), functional purpose, informative purpose and focus on
a particular recipient. MPTis a type of military translation,
whichis singled out among the other types based on thematic
criteria and features of the genre and style aliation [13, P. 39].
Let us consider functional and genre and style features
and peculiarities of MPT.
According to O.
Cherednychenko functional styleis
avariety of language usedin a typical social situation, andis
distinct from othervariantsinits linguistic, grammatical and
phonetic features [14, P. 87].
Ocial styleis a functional style of military-political
texts as far as they are functioningin communicative macro-
environmentin the sphere of specically ocial relations. e
mentioned environmentis aninformation system of function
al and stylistic relations, theinvariant basis of whichis formed
by the social (pragmatic) function of obligatoriness and for
mal (stylistic) function of ociality [15, P. 30].
einvariant pragmatic function of obligatoriness
andimperative naturein military-political textsis manifested
through the following functions:
directive
(imperative or appellative function of anincen
tive to action), as documents contentis binding upon those
to whom they are addressed (law, directive, regulation, order,
act);
regulatory and normative
function of establishing norms
and rules of behaviour under certain conditions (instruction,
manual), that alsoincludes the function of regulating relations
between the contracting parties (treaty, agreement, memo
randum, contract);
informative and analytical
function, resultingin high
lighting the current state of the armed forces and the main
directions for further military development toinform the pub
lic on the activities of the armed forces as well as the defence
policy of the state (Strategic Defence Bulletin, the “White
Book” annual publication);
conceptual doctrinal and regulating
function (the Na
tional Security Strategy of Ukraineis a compulsory document
whichis the basis for the development of other strategic plan
ning documentsin the area of national security, including the
Concept for the Development of the Security and Defence
Sector, Military Doctrine, Military Security Strategy, Cyber
Security Strategy, other sectoral strategies, state programs for
the development of the security and defence sector bodies
)e stylistic function of ocialityis characterized by the
following features:
formality
is dened by the military-political texts’ elds
of application to be discussed below;
impersonality
(impersonal nature) of the textis mani
fested by the statement on behalf of specicinstitutions (state,
law, armed forces, ministry of defence, general sta etc.); some
texts contain president’s statements as the supreme command
er-in-chief of the armed forces or other military authorities of
the state, howeverin this case the author’sindividualityis hid
den by the document’s style and excludes the subjectiveness
of theinformation representation;
objectiveness
is achieved by the absence of personaliza
tion, as military-political texts are normally elaborated by a
group of authors and depend on political objectives of the
state rather than the opinion of a particular person;
non
emotiveness
is grounded by the nature and functions
performed by military-political texts, areas of application of
these texts (e.
g., military-political texts lack exclamation
marksindicating expressive emotional colouring thatis not
typical for military-political texts);
stereotypeness
is manifested by the commonality of the
linguistic layout of texts, generating well-established language
formulas and clichés ensuring accuracy and unambiguity
ofinformation perception and transfer.
us, MPT’s functional styleis dened by the leading
function of delivery of ocial doctrinal/conceptualinforma
tion along with persistent stereotype schemes realizing this
function.
According to Ye.
A.
Selivanova every text manifests the
specic language genrein communication process, has a dis
tinctive structural and compositional, semantic, intentional
and pragmatic nature [17, P. 27]. Military-political texts’ anal
ysis madeit possible to outline typical communicative situ
ationsin which MPT genres function, dened by the
spheres
of these texts functioning
e main sphere of functioning of military-political
textsincludes military policy which encompasses state pol
icyin the domain of national security, defence and military
organization, state forecasting and strategic planning, defence
planning policy and defence review, military-political situa
tion, real and potential military threats to national security,
development of defence capabilities, military-political control
of the armed forces and preparing the state for defence.
Anotherimportant sphereincludesinternational coop
eration along military-political line, strategic dialogue on de
fence policy with partner countries andinternational organi
zations, international peacekeeping and security operations,
providing military assistance to foreign countries, sending the
armed forces units to other countries, conclusion ofinterna
tional agreements, observance and fullment of commitments
underinternational treaties on military-politicalissues.
e above mentioned spheres determine thematic or
topical content of military-political texts as well as the choice
of language means aecting the formation of genresin these
texts.
us, the MPT’s functional styleis formed through thein
uence of such extralinguistic factors as function, communica
tion sphere, situation and statement’s content (topic) stipulat
ing translation. e comparison of these style-forming factors
allows to distinguish dierences and similarities forvarious
types of military translation as well as to single out them as
separate types. Informative functionis relevant to all military
texts, and doctrinal and regulating function only for mili
Military-Political Translation
in the Context of the Theory of Military Translation
tary-political texts. Most discrepancies may be observed when
comparing communication sphere and statement’s topic.
Inview of the conducted analysis, the MPT might be de
ned as a type of military translation, providing for the full
ment ofintercultural communicative mediatorial functionin
the area of military policy, national security and defence based
on functionalidentity of military-political texts and consider
ing extralinguistic style- and genre-forming factors. e for
mulated denition may serve as a basis for theimprovement
of MPTverbal modelin the context of TMTin the future.
Conclusions.
Military-political translationis singled
out among the other types of military translation (military-
technical and military-special) based on thematic criteria of
military-political texts’ functioning (the area of “military pol
icy, national security and defence”) and features of the genre
and style aliation functions (directive of anincentive to
action, normative of regulating relations, analytical ofinform
ing and conceptual doctrinal), communication areas, genre
and style features.
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272p.
Nikiforova
O.
M.
Texts Classicationin Military Translation/Olena Nikiforova.//Journal “Filologichni Traktaty”.
– Sumy:
Sumy State University,
– V. 8, No. 4– P. 33–41.
Cherednychenko
O.
I., Koval Ya.
Translation eory and Practice. French.
– K.: Lybid,
– 319p.
Brandes
M.
P.
Pre-Translation Text Analysis (forinstitutions and departments of foreign languages): Textbook/M.
P.
Brandes,
V.
Provotorov.
– M.: NVI-TEZAURUS,
– 224p.
– P. 3.
eVerkhovna Rada of Ukraine. Decree of the President of Ukraine «On the Decision of the National Security and Defence
Council of Ukraine as of– May 6,
– 2015. “On National Security Strategy of Ukraine” [Electronic Resource]/Verkhovna
Rada of Ukraine.
– Access to the website: URL: hp://zakon2.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/287/2015.
Selivanova Ye.
A.
Fundamentals of Linguistic eory of the Text and Communication: Monographic Textbook.
– Kiev,
– 336p.
DOI: hp://dx.doi.org/10.20534/EJHSS-17-2-32-37
Rahimov Mehdi Nizami
Ph., D, Associate professor
Ganja State University, Azerbaijan
The “Foreigner” image
— phraseologisms
Abstract.
e article has been wrien on the basis of two sources. First: Phraseology of word combinations
that reectsimportant aspects of AmericanIndians life. Second: Phraseological units reecting subjective aitude
towardIndians by colonists. e main aim of theinvestigationis to point out theimpact of phraseology that had on
the development of culture, including the language, the American colonists numerous tribes of North AmericanIn
dians theindigenousinhabitants of the America.
e article studies enrichment of the English language as a result of contacts of the American colonists withIndians.
Keywords:
immigrants, American English, source, acculturation, Indian, American culture, referent
National-culturalidenticationin the languageis realized
by means of naming ethnonyms, i.
e. the representatives of
that ethnos and the concepts which are supposed to refer to
them. According to the language-carriers, behind every eth
nonym stands the collection of certain stereotypes reecting
characteristic aspects and typical peculiarities ofintellectual
and cultural development of that ethnos. Ethnonym’s acquisi
tion an additional connotation context creates new gurative
meanings which makes possible the usage of an ethnonym
within a single phraseological unit. Ethnic stereotypes express
the thoughts of a dominant referent group the language
carriers with high social statusin that territory and are based
on assessment of peculiarities of the described group dierent
from the referent group. “is assessmentin most cases carries
a negative character; (as strange abnormal, not correct, harm
ful, wild, etc.), howeverin rare cases a positive evaluation (as
strange, but beerin quality) is also met ” [2, 3–18].
As the ethnonym expresses the name of a concrete eth
nic group and nation, it has a unique and single meaning and
this peculiarity makesit a bit similar to the proper nouns. In
spite ofit, several ethnonyms, gurative meanings can emerge
within a phraseological unit existingin any language and they
can be used as synonyms of the phraseologicalvariants. e
reason foritis explained with the fact that similar peculiari
ties sometimes refer to dierent nations and ethnic groups.
As an example the phraseologism
The “Foreigner” image
— phraseologisms
as the rules require, but —om below. Howeverit doesn’t mean to play
like the Chinese (according to one of theversions, the meaning of this
phraseologismis based on a stereotype thought about the Chinese
supposing that as the Chinese are of low height they can throw the
Irish lemons•
coll., a fake copy (BrE and AmE)
Chinese copy
 an exact copy of the original, to the point
of copying all the minor faults of the genuine article
Controversial• funny:
Dutchman’s hurricane/Irishman’s hurricane•
Naut. slang,
calm at sea
Chinaman’s nightmare•
slang, an example of uncontrol
lable fusion, chaos
Strange:
it beats the Dutch
 coll., it’s exceptionally strange, unusual
According to German psychologists B.
Schefer and
B.
Schleder, cognitive basis of the phenomenon of “a for
eigner’ is explained with the fact thatit carries an axiological
danger. Asit expresses thevalues of other language –carriers,
the “foreigner” image creates a danger against localvalues. So,
a man moves away from the main humanidentities and at
the same time, puts under doubt his ownidentity [3, 24–51].
While analyzing Americanisms- phraseologisms with
an ethnonym component, all meaning of the “foreigner”
imageinvolves such an aitude. e “foreigner” imageis ac
cepted as wrong and hostile or aggressive, or stupid and funny.
By not accepting the “foreigner” image and a negative ai
tude towardsit there takes place self-conrmation of one’s
ownidentity andvalues.
References:
English-Russian linguistic regional dictionary “Americana”/Podred G.
D.
G.
V.
Chernova.
– Smolensk: Polygramma, 1996.
1185p.
Beryozovich
E.
L.
About the phenomenon of lexicalxenon motivation/E.
L.
Beryozovich//Questions of linguistics.
– P. 3–18.
Schefer, B.
Socio-psychological model of the perception of alien: a theoretical analysis of the basic concepts./B.
Schefer,
M.
Scarabis, B.
Schleder//Psychology. Journal of highest school of economics.
– V. 1, ¥1.
– P. 24–51.
A Dictionary of American English on Historical Principles./Edited by W.
A.
Craigie& J.
R.
Hulbert.
– Chicago: University
of Chicago Press, 1938–1944.
– 4vols. – 2553p.
Archdeacon
.
J.
Becoming American: an Ethnic History/.
J.
Archdeacon.
– New York: e Free Press, 1983. – 297 p.
DOI: hp://dx.doi.org/10.20534/EJHSS-17-2-34-37
Hajiyeva Galiba
PhD philological sciences, Assistant Professor
Nakhchivan State University
Traces of anceint sumerian language
Abstract.
e article deals with someissues of linguistic studies of the acceptability of ancient languagesin the
modern Azerbaijani language. In the study conducted by the author, itis noted that the Sumerianis adopted from
the ancient Sumerian, graphic comparisons of this language with the modern Azerbaijani language are carried out
anditis conrmed that the modern Turkic languageis the most ancient graphic language among world languages.
Itis noted that the Sumerian language was createdin Eastern Mesopotamia 4000years ago and was replaced by Ak
kadianin the early 2000s BC.
Key words:
dialectalvocabulary, graphic language, Sumerian language, modern Turkic language, modern Azer
baijani language
Linguistic researches carried out on an ancient Sume
rian language whichis considered the rst graphical language
conrms the current Turkish language to be the most ancient
graphical language among the world languages. Sumerian lan
guage was spokenin Eastern Mesopotamia 4000years ago and
was replaced with Acadian language at the beginning of 2000s
B.
C. as a spoken language, and was further used as a scientic
and literary languagein Mesopotamia up toI century A.
D.
Further this language was forgoen until theXIX cen
tury. Up to recent time relationship of Sumerian language
with any ancient and modern world languages was not con
rmed completely, however phonomorphological parallelity
between lexical system of the ancient Sumerian and modern
Turkic languages, as well as their dialectsin comparative re
searchesindicate that Turkish languageis an heir of the Su
merian language.
Although national ownership of the ancient Sumerian lan
guageis one of the problematicissues causing disputesin the
world linguistics, the most serious fact ending these debatesis
the language facts emerging at the result of comparison of
modern Turkic languages and dialects. Linguistic researches
of the recent years show that from lexical and grammatical as
pects Sumerian language has the phonomorphological struc
ture similar to modern Turkic languages [1, p. 307].
According to scientic world, ancient Sumerian, as a
languageisolated from modern world languages although
Traces of anceint sumerian language
do not bear any similarity with any other language, some
western researches referit to Ural-Altay language family [1,
p. 192].
In some researches there are thoughts about relation
ship of Sumerian language with the Caucasus, Tibet-Burma,
Ural-Altay, as well as Turkic languages: “It can be thought that
Sumerian people were founded at the result of mix of ethnos
speakingin dierent languages, but out of these languages Su
merian prevailed, and became communication and graphic
means” [2, p. 47].
Comparison of language facts about Sumerian language
with Azerbaijan dialectic lexics both from phonetic and lexical
aspectsin the works of both authors conrms the Turkish lan
guage to be the most ancient language once again highlighting
the historical development way of ancient Turkish language.
SUMERIAN LANGUAGE
NAKHCHIVAN DIALECT
in
jin
in
jin (someone)
kabkadak
qabqacaq (kitchen utensils)
azuk
azuqa (provisions)
di//ti
de (say)
neme
n™m™n™ (what kind of)
One of the most serious factors conrming this factis re
lated with the historical development of lexic units existingin
ancient Sumerianin Turkic languages.
As these appellative lexemes, animal namesin Sumerian
language aract aention as they existin Nakhchivan, South
Azerbaijan and Eastern Anatolia dialects with the same pho
nosemantic load. e word
olaq
meaning an animal namein
Azerbaijan dialect lexicsin ancient Sumerian language as
añadz+ak//
iñidz+ik
asitis
andin the form of
k‹d‹k//ki
dik//qidiyh,
oñodz+uk
– qodux//koduk– eŽŽ™k balas‹, donkey
cub,
uñudz+uk
quzu,
a lamb,
köñöts+ek –
d™v™ balas‹–
köŽŽ™k//köŽek
a camel cub
, küñüts+ük\b
küçük, a puppy
are
usedin Nakhchivan and Eastern Anatolia dialects [9, p. 63;
7, p. 192].
In some resources we come across the rst alphabet refer
ring to Sumeriani.
e., cuneiform writings which were further
used by Acadians and Elams, and at the same time thereisin
formation stating that graphical form of Ugartu and Persian
languages were based on cuneiform writings of Sumerian lan
guage which does notinclude logographic signs [2, p. 114].
Althoughin recent researches there was much aempt to nd
the word ofIndian-European originin Sumerian language,
much more similarities were found between the lexics of
Sumerian and modern Turkic languages. As many scholars
M.
Dyakonovin his researches told that according to mor
phologicalindicators, ancient Sumerianis an aqqultinative
language as Turkic languages: “ Sumerian, Elam, Hurri and
Urartu languages refer to aqqultinative language type andin
Sumerian languageitis typical for each grammatical element
to be expressed by a separateindicator, and theseindicators
are placed one aer anotherin accordance with a certain se
quence: the root of the word, the main word and suxes” [5,
p. 9].
Historical dialectological facts obtained from the compar
ative researches carried out according to both M.
Dyakov’s
and other researchers’ works show that ancient Sumerian lan
guage has a particular place among South group of dialects
of Azerbaijan language, particularly, Nakhchivan, Southern
Azerbaijan and Anatolia accents.
Comparing similar language facts between the ancient
Sumerian and Turkish languages the collaborators of the
Uludagh University determined common language elements
anditis one of the researches conrming this fact.
IN SUMERIAN
NAKHCHIVAN, SOUTH AZERBAI
JAN AND ANATOLIA ACCENTS
AZERBAIJAN LANGUAGE EL
TURKEY TURKISH 
mu//m®//b®, ol
bu, o (this, that)
±u, bu, o (this, that, it)
Guruva
qaraba±, garava±, karava±
a maidservant
qul//köl²
a slave
kad®n köle
a maidservant
ü±, u± (three)
Üç (three)
Üç (three)
Aur
a®r//a³®r (heavy)
a³®r (heavy)
A³®r (heavy)
san//say (number)
Say (number)
Say (number)
Ikki
Iki (two)
Iki (two)
Iki (two)
oul//uul, olan//ulan (a son)
o³ul (a son)
O³ul (a son)
²r//er//eren (a brave man)
²r (a brave man)
Er (a brave man)
od//ud (a re)
od//at²± (a re)
od//ate± (a re)
Asgu
asq®//asqu//asg® (a hanger)
Asq® (a hanger)
Ask® (a hanger)
qu (s²s) (sound)
s²s (sound)
Ses (sound)
Duru
Duru (pure, clean)
turu (t²miz) (pure, clean)
Temiz (pure, clean)
um (ummaq) (to set hopes)
ist²m²k, arzulamaq (to wish)
Istemek (to wish)
e words as
um, qu, mu//m,
san//say
which existedin
ancient Sumerian language and which are no more usedin
Azerbaijan literary language, are now used onlyin dialects of
Azerbaijan language, particularlyin ancient Azerbaijan folk
lore samples and thisis the most serious language fact con
rming Sumerian being a Turkic language.
Although comparison of the Sumerian language with
modern Turkic languagesis not an easy work, butitis, gener
ally, of great signicance from the point of studying phono
semantic changes taking placein dierent stages of histori
cal development of the Turkish language. For this purpose,
rst of all, sound transitions and dierent phonovariants
of these soundsin phonetic structure of the Sumerian and
modern Turkic languages and dialects should be paid aen
tion. Prof.
F.
Jalilov writes about signicance of comparison of
Front Asiaizogolosesin Azerbaijan language from the point
ofview of relations between ancient languages: “If Urartu-
Praazerbaijan relations have been reectedin the language
parallelsin the documents referring to theIX–VII centuries
B.
C., then the history of Sumerian-praazerbaijan, Acadian-
praazerbaijan, kha//khe- praazerbaijan parallels goes up to
the beginning of theII millennium” [11, p.38]. While speak
ing aboutinitial prolongation ofvowelsin modern Turkic
languages and dialects, turkologists show two types ofvowels
according to this prolongation:1. Initial prolongation;.2. Final
prolongation [5, p.13]. Although turkologists show that for
modern period the nal prolongationis typical for modern
Turkic languages and dialects, they say thatinitial prolonga
tionis typical for ancient periods of Turkic languages, but they
could not explain fully the reason and source ofit. Parallel
language factor found out during comparison of Azerbaijan
dialects with ancient Sumerian language lay ground for solu
tion of this problem.
One of the phonetic peculiarities of Nakhchivan, South
Azerbaijan and Anatolia accents parallel to Sumerian lan
guageis existence of diphtongs. e rst samples of diph
thongsin Azerbaijan and Anatolia accents emerged at the re
sult of sound are met namelyin ancient Sumerian language:
aur
aŒ‹r,
(heavy),
ulpae
çolpan y‹ld‹z‹, y™ni zöhr™ ul
duzu
(Venus)
, mae
m™n™, (to me),
zae
s™n™, (to you),
ulia//öle
• sulu yer, bataql‹q
(wetland, marsh). One of the
most serious facts conrming Sumerian language to be more
close to Turkish languageis thatit has the same morphologi
calindicators as the Turkish language:
Asin modern Turkic languagesin ancient Sumerian lan
guage also new word formationis based on stem+morphem
model, i.
e. in Sumerian language also asin Turkish the new
words are formed by adding suxes to the word stem.
Ancient Sumerian languageisvery rich from the point
ofview ofverbs just as modern Turkish language.
ereis a sound harmony.
In ancient Sumerian language thereis no gender cat
egory asin modern Turkic languages.
Asin modern Turkic languagesin ancient Sumerian
language also sometimes the concept of majorityis conveyed
by repeating the words, i.
e., in a syntactic way.
Asin modern Turkic languagesin ancient Sumerian
language also some words are used both as nouns andverbs:
iç™ri,
içm™k; (to drink)
1. düz
düz™n, hamar yol; (smooth way, a plain)
2. düz
düzm™k; (to arrange)
1. bar
var
dövl™t;
wealth)
2. bar
Turkey
Azerbaijan
Turkmen
Uzbek
New Uyghur
Bashkir
Tatar
Kazak
Kirgiz
Yakut
Chuvash
kini
vl/ul
Ona
Ona
o´a
unga
uningha
U³a
aña
O³an
aga
kiniexe
µna
Onu
Onu
onu
Uni
Uni
Un®
an®
an®
kinini
µna
Onda
Onda
onda
unda
unda/uning
da/anda
unda
anda
Onda
anda
unra/unta
ondan
Ondan
ondan
undan
undin/uning
din/andin
undan
annan
Onan
andan
kinien
unran/untan
Onun
Onun
onu´
uning
uning
Un®ñ
an®ñ
an®n
kiene
un/un¶n
Besides historical and geographical facts conrming Na
khchivan, South Azerbaijan and Anatolia accents sharing the
same peculiarities with the ancient Sumerian language from
phonomorphological point ofview, it also needs presentation
of ethnogenetic factors as avery serious historical fact. Prof. Dr.
MuazzezIlmiye Chighin referring to Servet Somunjuoghlu’s
“From Siberia to Anatolia the Turks on the Rock” says that the
ethnogeny of the Sumerians goes to the most ancient Turkic
tribe kengerlers and that they called themselves
lu.kenger.ra
 Kengerliinsan” (Kengerli man) “Kiengir, Kingir, Kenger”.
Besidesit, one of the facts conrming the researchers’
thoughtsis that the Sumerians named the rst city they estab
lishedin Mesopotamia Kengerli. Moreover, in Turkmenistan
one of Turkmen regionsis called “Kugur” and one of the place
namesin Azerbaijanis “Kenger” and this have been substanti
ated on the basis of historical facts [14].
Reection of Gastronomic Discourse
in the English Paroemiological Corpus
ese historical linguistic facts show the traces of ancient
Sumerian languagein Nakhchivan and Anatolia accents, as
well asin a number of Turkic languages. Asit seems from the
researches, the fact that the traces of the ancient Sumerian
language lives mostlyin dialects ad accents, rather thanin
literary language shows the scale of signicance of dialecto
logical researchesin linguisticinvestigations. Direct relation of
Sumerian language with Nakhchivan and Anatolia accentsis
a factindicating that Sumerianis the most ancient Turkic
language; at the same timeit shows that modern Nakhchi
van, South Azerbaijan and Eastern Anatolia accents have
6000years-history. ese all are linguistic facts.
References:
Amanjolov
A.
S.
History of Ancient Turkic Script, Almaty, – 2003.
omas Walter Manson/A companion to the Bible/T&T/Clark, – 1950.
Y.
B.
Yusifov. History of ancient East. Baku State University Publishing House,
Ekrem Akkurgal. e Haian and Hiite civilizations. Ministry of Culture, – 2001.
M.
Dyakonov. Languages of ancient Front Asia. Moscow,
Atakichi Jeliloghlu Kasim, “Sumerianis denitely a Turkic language. Istanbul, – 2001
Ahmet Buran, Sherife Oghrash. Elaz®x A³®zlar®. Elaz®gh, – 2003.
Dialects and accents of Nakhchivan AR.
Baku, – 1962.
Osman Nedim Tuna. e age of Turkish languagein historical relationship of Sumerian and Turkic languages, Ankara, –
T.
Kaneva. Sumerian language. Sankt-Peterburg, – 1996.
Jalilov
F.
Morphonlogy of Azerbaijan language. Baku, – 1988.
Imamguliyeva
K.
Sharur accents of Azerbaijan language. Dissertation for candidacy. Baku, – 1991.
Muazzez °lmiye Ç®gh. Stormin Sumerians, Turksin Storm. Source publications – 2008.
hp:
onturk.wordpress.com
sumer-dili-ile-turk-dili-karsilastirmalari
DOI: hp://dx.doi.org/10.20534/EJHSS-17-2-37-39
Cherednikova Ekaterina Arkadievna,
Rostov State University of Economics,
Candidate of Philological Sciences,
Assistant Professor,
Faculty of Linguistics and Journalism
E-mail: [email protected]
Reection of Gastronomic Discourse
Values
the English Paroemiological Corpus
Abstract:
e article describes culinary paroemiological units of the English languagein terms of their func
tionsin the gastronomic discourse. Culinary proverbs are analyzed from the axiological point ofviewin terms of
their capability of transmiing norms andvalues of a given linguoculture.
Keywords:
proverb,
value, gastronomic discourse.
In the second part of the 20
century a shiin linguis
tic paradigm provokedinterestin the language as means of
communication. is function of the languageis realizedin
the form of a discourse, whichis aversatile notion character
ized both by linguistic and extralinguistic factors. In modern
linguistics a “discourse” is dened as a coherent textin con
nection with extralinguistic (pragmatic, social-cultural, psy
cholinguistic etc.) factors; a textin the event-driven aspect;
speech seen as an object-oriented social action, as anintegral
part of people’sinteraction [1].
e gastronomic discourse appears to be one of the
mostinteresting and least researched types of a discourse. In
A.
Olyanich’s opinion, the aim of this type of discourseis real
izedin a specic kind of communication concerning the state
of food supplies as well as the processes of their production
and consumption [2].
e given article examines paroemiological units as anin
dispensable constituent of the gastronomic discourse concise
ly communicatingits norms andvalues that can either belong
to one linguoculture or be acceptedin several linguocultures.
Paroemiological units can be aributed to the so-called
“commonplaces” of a discourse, i.
e. to the phenomena char
acterized by reproducibility, regular repeatability, well-known
status, indivisibility, folklore nature, etc. [3].
InV.
Marov’s point ofview, commonplaces divert a reader
not to the author’sintention, but to the cultural code which
represents “the memory of what has been read, seen, experi
enced” [4]. is brings Kenneth Burke to theidea that these
commonplaces can be called aitudes andvalues [5].
Any discourse, including the gastronomic one, is based
on these commonplaces. ere are plenty of themin texts on
culinary topics, and they always translatevalues and norms
of the linguoculture they belong to. In modern linguistics
avalueis dened as a target orienting a personin his activi
ties and determining the norms of his behavior [6]. Whereas
a normis supposed to be aninstruction, permission or pro
hibition to actin a certain way, whichis expressedin a nor
mative statement. In terms of a language such statements
can be exclamatory sentences, however they are more oen
expressedin a declarative sentence with specic normative
words and expressions (
to be allowed, prohibited,
etc.) [7].
S.
Sidorkov believes paroemiological unitsin general and
proverbsin particular to be standard examples of the com
monplaces [3]. A proverb can be dened as “a brief, simple
and popular saying or a phrase that gives advice and eectively
embodies a commonplace truth based on practical experience
or common sense” [8].
In M.
Bakirova’s opinion, proverbs are especiallyinter
esting from the axiological point ofview, as they document
national self-awareness and reect diversity and linguistic
consciousness of the given ethnic group through specic as
sociativeimaginative foregrounding [9].
Paroemic units present an exceptionally a·uent source
for studying consistent axiological paerns and analyzing
strategies of linguistic evaluation. Such strategies directly de
pend on the nation’s cultural dominants.
Let us consider one of the basicvalues common for most
linguocultures “work”. An ethnic group’s treatment of the
notion of work helps to reveal the system of social relation
ships and thereby the society’s basicvalues communicatedin
particular through gastronomic discourse. Love for work
and creative activity connected withit are encouraged by the
strongest naturalinstinct of self-preservation, whichis arib
uted by scholars to “the basicinstincts of human culture” (as
dened by Konrad Lorenz). is basicinstinct makes people
workin order to provide for their everyday needs, i.
e. to pos
sess means of tackling basic needs, one of whichis the need for
food. isis translated through proverbs as part of the English
linguoculture. For example:
A still bee gathers no honey.
No bees, no honey; no work, no money.
You can’t make an omele˜e without breaking eggs.
Charity bread has hard crusts. (Bread of your own earning
Transformation as a basic concept
in translation (analytical aspects)
Babaeva
E.
V.
Linguocultural characteristics of Russian and German axiological worldviews. A thesis for a Doctor’s of
Philology degree.
– Volgograd,
Philosophy: encyclopedic dictionary.
– M.: Gardariki. Edited by A.
A.
Ivin.
Literary Devices Editors. “Proverb” LiteraryDevices.net.
– 2017. URL: hps://literarydevices.net/metaphor/(accessed
March 23, 2017)
Bakirova
M.
R.
Language conceptualization of positive evaluation of paroemiological corpus of the English and Tatar lan
guages. Extended abstract of dissertation for a Candidate’s of Philology degree.
– Cheboksary,
Dictionary of English Proverbs and Proverbial Phrases by omas Preston. URL: hp://www.gutenberg.org/eb
ooks/39281.
DOI: hp://dx.doi.org/10.20534/EJHSS-17-2-39-42
Sharipova Aziza Abdumanapovna,
senior teacher at TUIT
E-mail: [email protected]
Transformation as a basic concept
in translation (analytical aspects)
Abstract:
is articleis devoted to theidea of transformationin translating. A brief overview of the main concepts
of translation studies are presentedin the following article. is workincludesinformation of the peculiaritiesin
the structural building of the text translation. Certain notable scientistsin the eld of linguistics are divided wrien
translationinto particular groups. Additionally, translational text may be categorizedinto several types, according
to their meaning and form of literary. Another mentionable factis that the dictionaries are dierentiate from one
another by several aspects, such as meaning, encompassment and languageitself.
Keywords:
translation transformation, wrien translation, literary translation, dictionaries, linguistic, equiva
lency, coordination, adequacy, stylistic synonyms.
As other science elds, in the translation study there are
many terms and concepts. In major cases, dening these con
cepts and terms correctly and using themin their own places
eects directly on the quality of the translation. e transla
tion of the synonymsindicatedin the title of the articleis one
of theimportant conceptin the translation study and espe
ciallyin the literary translation of the literary text and provides
dierent transformations. e rapid developingin dierent
elds of translation studies requires toidentify some prob
lems while translation from Englishinto Uzbek, to reconsider
requirements demanded on the translation and toinvestigate
achievements that accomplished previous yearsin young eld
of translation. In 70–80years of the last century a text theory,
especially, the creation of text linguistics and text typology
helped for the develop of the translation studies. In the pro
cess of translation theinuence on quality of the translation
of the type of text andits peculiarities conrmedin many
scientic works. Forinstance, we may take the monograph
ofI.
S.
Alekseyev “Text and translation. e questions of the
theory”. e newsin linguistics, on the part, specied many
theoreticalissues and planned works that would be done by
translatorsin the future, on the other part, it demonstrated the
problems related to translation which should be solved. ere
fore, such kind of problemsincludes what needs to be paid
aention while translating stylistic synonyms usedin literary
texts, using which transformations of the translation caused
for transformation, lexical, grammatical, stylistic peculiarities
of the languages that arein contact with each other because of
translation, their relation level anditsinuence on translation.
e main concepts of translation studies as an equiva
lency, a coordination and a adequacy and the relations be
tween them may only be determined according to the type of
text, transformations appropriately and eective. ereinitis
considered signicant to say about a problem that should be
solved. e method of analyzing the text translation. While
analyzing the textitis based onis signicant factor for what
and which principles. Specifying translation problems accord
ing to the type of the text gives an opportunity of analyzingit
correctly. Reality and translation gives a chance of analyzing
textin lingua stylistic microstructure and gives an opportunity
of determining equality levelin macrostructure. We hope that
the peculiarities we pointed out above gives good outcomes
while translating some types of texts from English directlyinto
Uzbek and using while producing private theories. In develop
ing of translation theory the spiritual knowledge and the rich
experience of thevarious subjects are considered signicant.
ese subjects are followings: history of literature, history,
philosophy, sociology, psychology, ethnography and especial
lyin the elds of the text linguistics and text studies. I Gafurov
said especially that “the role of linguisticsis endlessin transla
tion theory” [1, P. 13]. Asitis, without hesitating, therefore,
we may say the same thing about text theory. During the last
ten years the linguistic problems were being resolved. Itis ob
vious that not onlyin translation but alsoin text doing some
thing condently without linguisticsis complicated. Besides,
is considered one of the signicant duties of this eld to study
deeply and successively the linguistic problems, text`s poetic,
aesthetic, psychological, philosophic and social problems. Ad
ditionally, L.
Barxudarov, A.
Fedorev, A.
Popovich, V.
Vino
gradov, V.
Kommisarov, E.
Breus, N.
Pelevina, Yu. Katser and
A.
Kunin and such kind of procient scientistsinvestigated
these serious researches on this eld.
Determining the legalities of the communication among
the cultures, showing wideinformationin reality translation
andinvestigating the ways of passing them at the same level re
quire using widely from the achievements of the exact subjects.
Especially, the language and the text showedvery close
dependence between translation theory and text studies asit
reected spiritual life of the human as mirror. ere are several
denitions of the text. One of the textuary scientist L.
Loseva
showed the following three symbols of the text:
1) e textisinformationin wrien form;
2) e text hasits meaning and ended structural form;
3) In the text thereis reected the aitude of the author
towardinformation being demonstrated [2, P. 4].
Itis signicant to point out one thing separately that the
linguistic researches were beingimplementedin the last years
paid whole aention to the translation problems. If we ob
serve a translation concept as a linguisticview pointitis com
prehended as follows “itis a creative process of recreating a
text createdin other language without alteringits meaning and
form” [3, P. 5]. So translationis to recreate text that createdin
other language through using second language`s resources.
We can do the conclusion that the language and speech
are activities, textis material and translationis process.
Itis obvious that “the research object of the translation
theoryis translation process, various works which help to
develop the translation theory and their translation texts”
[4, P. 6]. e conceptions of translation and text are organic
dependent on each other. Without any textsitisimpossible
toimplement any translation. In the process of the translation
the text that created through reality language resourceis con
sidered resource text, itis recreated according to the legalities
and opportunities of rst language. e basic aim of the trans
lation theoryis to make more exactly the ways of translating
dierent types of texts [5, P. 18]. e translation acts the role
of bridge among languages.
To speak more exactly the translation resembles to the
boat that made to carry special things from this bank of river
to another bank and translatoris a leader of boat and text takes
aer to thevital goods that leader has to deliver. ere are dif
ferences between translation text and resource text, they are
formal and semantic limited dierence thatis why translation
text diers from resource text withits meaning and form. In
spite of this case, the readers think that the resource text and
the translation text are functional and the structure and the
semantic point ofview areidentical. However, thereis always
dierence between resource and translation texts.
e Resource text has the following peculiaritiesin the
structural building of the text translation:
1) Continuity of expressing;
2) Constancy the order of partsin the text.
e main of aim of these peculiaritiesis to provide the
similar parts between each parts of translation text and re
source text. Altering the order of explaining or expressing may
be done only by translator whenitisimpossible to translate
something straight [6, P. 9].
e similarity between the structure of resource text and
translation text gives a chance of specifying the presence or the
absence of the elementsin the translation text, the addition
or the omission and the determination of their conformity.
While translating resource text the similarity of the meaning
playsimportant role. Whileit realization the translator uses
the most appropriate and conformity equivalents. Peoplein
tuition denitely plays basic rolein order to accomplish best
outcomes. “Translation theory provides translator with rules,
methods, ways that are necessaryin order to analyze and syn
thesis. In resource text there are taught and explained what
needs to be searched and explained how translated text should
be and how translation should beimplemented” [6, P. 10].
e translationis literary, cultural, psychological, linguis
tic process. Taking account them, the translation text and the
resource text are equal.
Both two texts are created based on linguistics the same
legalities and through translator`s speech. In resource text the
meaning, the neutral and emotional words, archaic words, his
torical words, assimilation, assimilate, dialect, slangs, phrases,
insult words, proverbs, words expressed with drawbacksin
correct forms, unities meanings should be kept. Resource
textis to each subject and scientic eldin the science world.
As we know people communicate with each otherin dif
ferent languages. ey developedin a cultural sphere thatis
why they own dierent knowledge, social and historical past.
Of course, itinuences on translator because some concepts
of resource text may be misunderstanding for the readers of
the translation. In these casesitis required from translator to
explain those concepts of the resource text clearly to the reader.
Itis obvious the above mentioned that through translat
ing a text, resource text from one language to second one,
through changingit two texts are appeared. One of themis
primary, initial text reality text or resource text, second oneis
appeared throughimplementing some linguistic and stylistic
tasks. “During changing the original text to the translation
textit should be saved only onevariant; the degree of saving
thisvariantidenties the degree of adequacy or stability to the
original text of the translation text” [6, P. 15]. In this place,
it may provide a question. What will be saved as ainvariant
while translation? It should be takeninto account to nd the
answer to this question that the each language unity hasits
form and signicance. In this case, itisimportant to pay at
tention that languages dier from each other from form point
ofview but they are the same from the meaning point ofview.
For example, the word
“muer”
in German means
“ona”
Uzbek. ese words forms are dierent but meaningis the
same. Such kind of situations makes the translation process
more dicult, but do not alter the meaning of the word.
Transformation as a basic concept
in translation (analytical aspects)
ere are two types of translation: wrien and orally.
Wrien and oral translationis characterized with people who
take partinit. We may explain this as following: in the process
of translation the text that being translated stays under aen
tion, anditis marked aer translation gets over thatis whyin
wrien translation the textis considered “communicator”. In
oral translation communicator are communicators.
A scientist of translation studies A.
V.
Fedorov divided
wrien translationinto some groups:
e newspapers news, ocial document and special
scientic texts ªtranslations;
e general social literatures’ translations;
e translation of literary work.
ere are also dierent types of oral translation:
Translating wrien text orally. Firstly, the translator
reads textinside and translatesit orally;
Translating orally textinto wrien one [6, P. 10].
ese types of orally translation are used rarelyin prac
tice. Words said orally are wrien with the help of stenograph
then stenographic text translationis appeared. Forinstance:
?-world,
people,
!-encyclopedia, constitution,
“-order, decrees [7, P. 184–189].
While translating texts documents devoted to social poli
tics choosing words are consideredveryimportantin wrien
translation. While choosing words equivalents of that lan
guage take signicant place. ese are followings:
Always equivalent words these type of wordsinclude:
realities, phraseological combinations wrienin newspaper
language;
While choosing appropriate equivalents translator
should choose the most necessary equivalent;
In such kind of situations translator chooses equivalent.
Now, we will talk about literary translation that takes
signicant placein translation process. In the process of lit
erary translationis considered the object of the translation,
itis a material that always stays translator’s aention center.
According to the meaning and form literary translation text
dividedinto several types. ese are:
creative translation;
word by word translation;
free translation;
idiom translation;
adaption translation;
authorized translation;
event translation;
academic translation;
indirect translation.
Translation typesindicated above appeared when transla
tion theory developed. Here we mayinclude dictionary as a
new type of translation. However, dictionary shows two lan
guages linguistic unitiesin text at the same time. However,
during translation the closest friend of translatoris dictionary
[80P. 36]. e dictionaries are one type of translation, itis
basic factor to learn foreign language and while translating
real textsinto translation language.
e dictionaries are texts that we workvery much, in dic
tionaries linguistic unities are givenin order. Especially they
placed according to alphabet. Dictionaries are dierentiated
according to several aspects:
According to the number of language:
Monolingual;
Bilingual.
2.According toits encompassment:
Small;
Normal;
Big.
3.According toits meaning:
General;
Special (economical, medical, judicial) dictionaries exist.
e translationis a communicative factor anditis con
sidered translating exact text to the second language accord
ing to their spiritual needs. It serves to give literary aesthetic
pleasure to the readers. Because translation text should own
the samevolume as resource text, it should create the samein
tegrity as resource text.
S.
Sirojjidinov wrote the followings
“translation should own the communicative place of real text
and giving readers a chance of literary admiration from the
text, showing meaningful and structural balance to the read
ers” [4, P.17]. ereis a conformity levelin translation theory
anditis denedin translation with concepts of equivalency
and adequacy. First Ya. Reytsker discusses on theissues of
lexical conformity, he learned them deeply and describes the
types of conformity. According to hisviewpoint conformityis
dividedinto three types. ese are: equivalency, coordination
and adequacy.
1.Equivalency permanentisin equal conformity thatis
not related to the contextin exact time and place.
2.Coordinationis semantic, structural and functional
similarities among resource, text and translation text. It ap
pears when there are similarities that pointed out above, be
tween two texts resource and translation text, when the lin
guistic unities alter their places with their suitableversions.
ere are many equivalentsin the resource text while trans
lating thatis why they may be usedinstead of each otherin
dierent texts.
3.Adequacyis one type of coordination and aboutit
Ya.Retsker said the followings “in order to nd way out of
hopeless of leers and lexical and phrasal conformity, the
translator should look forideological ways. Adequate trans
lationis complicated process. Init the parts of the resource
textis given according to the translator’s linguistic and tradi
tional knowledge.
ere are many translation theories, they may be divid
edinto explicit andimplicit theories. We may say this about
explicit theory, it emphasizes about which description ap
pearedin translation process and says that the translators are
outcome of this process. With the help ofit translator will be
busy with his translation works.
As each scientic eld hasits own concepts and terms,
translation studies also haveits own terms and conceptions.
One of the main concept of translation theoryis “translation
transformations”.
ere are many reasons why translation transforma
tionis one of the main termsin translation studies. We can
notimagine the process of translation without alterations
because real language and translation language may not be
relative. e languages which are always under our aention
Uzbek and English are not relative. rough this word ev
erythingis obvious thatin the process of translations chang
ings denitely occur. Changingsinclude: words layer, words
order, words meaning, words semanticvolume and these
kind of language phenomenon. In the following article, we
talk about stylistic transformations that are used while using
stylistic synonyms.
According to the type, style and objective of texts we use
dierent transformations.
Type, level and sphere of the languageidentify which
transformationis appropriate to use. As we have literary text,
before having translatedit we may say without hesitation that
we use stylistic transformationin the process of translation.
References:
GafurovI.
Muminov
O.
Qambarov
N. “e theory of translation”.
– Tashkent: Tafakkur Bustoni,
– 216p.
Lotman Yu.
M. “About art”.
– SPb.: Iskusstvo,
– 704p.
Rahimov G’.X. “Language– the sound of a bridge between the two nations”//– 2015, SpecialIssue.
– P. 7.
Sirojiddinov Sh., Odilova
G. “Principles of literary translation”.
– Tashkent: “Mumtoz suz”,
– 163p.
GakV.
G. “Typology of contextual linguistic transformationsin translation//text and translation”.
– M.: Nauka,
– P.
Rahimov G’.X. “e theory and practice of translation”.
– Samarkand,
– 200p. (Handwrien).
Minyar Beloruchev
R.
K. “e manualinterpretation”.
– Moscow: Higher School,
– 192p.
Sharipov
J.”e history of translation.”– Tashkent.
– 384p.
DOI: hp://dx.doi.org/10.20534/EJHSS-17-2-42-44
Shevchenko Liudmyla,
Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv,
PhDin Philology, the Faculty of Economics,
the Department of Foreign Languages
E-mail: [email protected]
Linguistic and cultural peculiarities of
as cognitive and pragmatic units
Abstract:
Linguistic and cultural peculiarities ofidioms of the English culinary discourse are examinedin the
article. e most signicant cultural dominants and stereotypesin the collective consciousness of the people repre
senting philosophy, psychology, ethics and culture of the nation are analyzed.
Keywords:
language picture of the world, phraseological unit, culinary discourse, nationally marked component.
e problems of correlation of the language, culture and
society have long aracted the aention of linguists. Start
ing with Herder’s andvon Humboldt’s research, the language
studyingin the aspect of “language and culture” has been the
subject of research of many linguists. In theXX centuryin
the United States the problem of the language and culture
connection brought to the site andidentied a new trendin
linguistics ethnolinguistics.
e concept of “socio-cultural” meaning wasintroduced
by Charles Freese, who noted that the statements of the lan
guage, practically functioningin the society, have both linguis
tic and socio-culturalvalue.
R.
Lado represents the concept of
socio-cultural meaning as part of the people’s culture and part
of the linguistic meaning.
In the phraseology, the linguistic picture of the worldis
clearly reected. Itis no coincidence that many authors con
sideridioms as the most culturally marked and national lan
guage-specic units [1, 37]. Scientists came to the conclusion
that due to the operation of such categories as a picture of the
world, a language picture of the world, a conceptual picture
of the worldin the conceptual apparatus of linguistics, it be
comes possible toidentify the phraseological picture of the
world andits culturally signicant fragments.
e phraseological picture of the worldis understood
by researchers as the result and the way ofverbal description
of macro- and microcosm by the people native speakers,
based on thematic andideographic systematics ofidioms and
their specic national and culturally signicant fragments,
conceptual center of whichis the “man”.
V.
A.
Maslova calls a phraseological unit “the soul of every
national language, which wonderfully expresses the spirit and
originality of the nation” [2, 82]. She also adds thatin most
Linguistic and cultural peculiarities of
idioms as cognitive and pragmatic units
phraseological units there are “traces” of the national culture,
which must beidentied. Culturalinformationis storedin
theinternal form of a phraseological unit, which, being the
gurative representation of the world, gives cultural and na
tional colouring to anidiom. e main thingin theidentica
tion of cultural and national particularitiesis to reveal national
and cultural connotation.
e phraseological fund of the language as a subject of
studyin linguistic culturologyis “avaluable source ofinfor
mation about culture and mentality of the people, asit hides
the people’sideas about myths, customs, rites, rituals, habits,
morality, behaviour, etc.” [2, 43]. At the same time theidi
omis a “bunch of culturalinformation” [2, 55]. Its functionis
to expressvaluation and emotional aitude to the facts and
phenomena.
All human activities have their own specializedvocabu
lary, their own special terms, penetrating sometimes, espe
ciallyin the metaphorical use, in the literary language. Our
speech cannot adequately convey allinexhaustible richness
of life withitsinterrelations, all thoughts and feelings. Idioms
and neat sayings created by people engagedinvarious elds
of activity always nd usein expressive speech being concise,
conversational and lively. Cooksin the kitchen, sailors at sea,
peasantsin the elds, etc., all those who urgently needed to
give the order, to express prejudice, threat, reproach could
nd bright word combinations, colorful metaphors connect
ed with circumstances of their activity. ese phrases and
metaphors wereincludedin their professionalvocabulary.
Subsequently, some of these expressions received a broader
meaning and were applied to similar situationsin a dierent
environment, oen humorously. So, people speaking on dif
ferent topics, widely use metaphors connected with shing,
cooking and ports; gradually the mostvivid and expressive
phrases penetrated the literary language and became the pub
lic domain [3, 33].
For this reason, the currency of the research of phraseo
logical units, conceptualizing cultural area associated with all
aspects of the tradition of cooking and consumption of food
and beverages (culinary and gastronomic discourse), is due
not only to “pure” science, but culturalinterests of the public.
e English phraseology of this area represents the most sig
nicant cultural dominants and stereotypesin the collective
consciousness of the people which are enshrinedin the na
tional mentality, representing philosophy, psychology, ethics,
culture and life of every nation.
e original and expressive “culinary and gastronomic
language”, “the kitchen language”, for example, that of the Eng
lish language, is full of specic expressions, many of which are
widely used aer being rethought:
to boil down
to boil over
to bu˜er up
to make mincemeat of
to skim the cream o 
half
baked
in apple
pie order
done to a turn
(of the spit);
to take the
gilt o  the gingerbread
us, the connections between the language and the na
tional culture can be carried outin dierent ways, i.
e. through
the aspect of the national and cultural component [4], in the
form of background knowledge or through culturally marked
connotation [5], which arises as a result of correlating the
associative-shaped base with cultural and national standards
and stereotypes. V.
A.
Maslova believes that symbols largely
determine the content of cultural connotations [2, 54].
In the English language, the most nationally marked
components of phraseological unitsin the culinary discourse
are:
rn
: feed smb. on so corn
pudding: pudding heart
cake
go like hot
cakes
chicken
: a spring
chicken
hard to gather and classify them. e group of phraseological
expressions, whose biblical origins are rmly established and
which actualize culinary and gastronomic discourse of English
cultureincludes:
the
apple
of Sodom
loaves
and
shes
milk
and
honey
new
wine
in old bo˜les
the olive branch
the
esh-
pots
of Egypt
the
salt
of the earth
. In addition to theseidioms,
biblicalimages and concepts constitute the basis of the fol
lowing cognitive-cultural expressions:
to kill the
faed calf
the
li˜le
leaven that leavens the whole
lump
the old leaven
Ofinterestis the fact thatin English you can earn for both
bread
and
salt
(earn one’s salt
), the British can also eat “someone
else’s bread” and “someone’s salt”
(eat smb.’s salt
). In someidi
oms the component “
salt
” actualizes a moral and ethical aspect
byits semantics:
A˜ic salt
be true to one’s salt
be worth one’s
salt
sit above the salt
sit below the salt
. Etymologically theidiom “
sit
above the salt”
goes back to the old English custom by which the
saltcellar was putin the middle of the table, and noble guests
were siing at the upper end of the table, whereas humble
guests, poor relatives and servants were at the boom end.
us, revealing specics of the people’s conceptual sphere
and studying their traditions are possible thanks to the phra
seological units which, possessing national and cultural se
mantics are the reection of the history, life and moralvalues
of a particular nation or an ethnic group, and represent the
richest, yet not fullyinvestigated formation of culture and the
source of human wisdom.
References:
Dobrovolskiy
D.
O.
Natsionalno-kulturnaya spetsikavo frazeologii (National and cultural specicityin phraseology),
Voprosyi yazyikoznaniya,
– No. 6,
– P. 37–45 (in Russ.).
MaslovaV.
A.
Lingvokulturologiya (Linguoculturology),
– M.,
– 208p. (in Russ.).
Smith Logan, P.
Frazeologiya angliyskogo yazyika (Phraseology of the English language).
– M.,
– 207p. (in Russ.).
Vereschagin
E.
M., KostomarovV.
G.
Lingvostranovedcheskaya teoriya slova (Linguistic-cultural theory of the word),
M.,
– 320p. (in Russ.).
TeliyaV.
N.
Pervoocherednyie zadachii metodologicheskie problemyiissledovaniya frazeologicheskogo sostava yazyikav
kontekste kulturyi (Principal tasks and methodological problems of the research of phraseological fund of the language),
Frazeologiyav kontekste kulturyi,
– M.,
– P. 21–28 (in Russ.).
Evaluation Technologies: the Eectiveness of Social and Functional Management
DOI: hp://dx.doi.org/10.20534/EJHSS-17-2-45-47
Blahun Nataliia Mykhailivna,
Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University
Doctor of Science (Pedagogic), Professor, the Faculty of Pedagogic
E-mail: [email protected]
Evaluation Technologies: the Effectiveness of Social and
Functional Management
Abstract:
e aim of this paperis to present aninterpretation of educational technology, includingits origin, its
denitions, its spheres of application, andits development. e literature reviewis followed by a discussion of the
eectiveness of social and functional managementin educationinstitutions.
Keywords:
education. education technology, upbringing.
Domestic and foreign scientists consider educational
technology as animportant means ofimproving the quality
ofidentity formation. Itis completely logical that this problem
has gained active and multidimensionalinvestigationin the
last decade.
Its subject maer brings together a clash of several op
posing points ofview. Some scientists consider teaching as a
complex technology of modern teaching aids, others as a
process of communication. ereis also a separate group of
scholars who consider the concept of “Educational Technol
ogy” as means and processes of learning. e formation of
Educational Technology as a science took placein the 60
the twenties century. However, some of the scientistsidenti
ed the concepts of “Learning Technology” and “Educational
Technology” as equal. A multidimensional approach to the
concept of “educational technology” has been formed gradu
ally. According to our point ofview, the most complete deni
tion of this concept was provided by P.
Mitchellin his “
Ency
clopedia of Educational Media Communications and Technology”
[5]. “As Educational Technologyis not synonymous with
“teaching aid”, it served as aninterdisciplinary conglomerate,
which concernsvirtually all aspects of education: P.
Mitchell
describes Educational Technology as, “an area of study and
practice (within education) concerned with all aspects of the
organization or educational systems and procedures whereby
resources are allocated to specied and potentially replicable
educational outcomes” [3]. In 1979, the US Association for
Educational Communication and Technology published the
«ocial» denition of Educational Technology as, “a com
plex, integrated processinvolving people, procedures, ideas,
devices and organization for analyzing problems and devising,
implementing, evaluating and managing solutions to those
problemsinvolvedin all aspects of human learning” [2]. e
US scientists dene Educational Technology as, “not mere
researchin the eld of using technical aids or computers,
thisinvestigation aims toidentify the principles and develop
methods of optimizing the educational process by analyzing
the factors that conrm their eectiveness through the estab
lishment andimplementation of techniques and materials,
and using assessment methods [3].
Domestic scholars O.
Padalka, A.
Nisimchuk, I.
Smolyuk
believe that “Educational Technologyis the science of devel
opment, education and upbringing of the student’s personal
ity based on positive human qualities and achievements of
educational thought and basis of computer science” [6].
Referring to the denition of “Learning Technology” (by
UNESCO), it should be noted thatinits general meaningitis
a systematic method of creation, application and determina
tion of the entire process of teaching and learning takinginto
account technical and human resources as well as theirin
teraction, which aims to optimize education. “is branchis
more focused on the student, not on the subject for learning
assessment of acquired knowledge (methods and techniques
of training) in the empirical analysis, and extensive use of au
diovisual meansin teaching process, denes the practicein
close connection with the theory of learning” [4].
eidea of systemic-functional approach tointerpreta
tion of the concept of “Educational Technology” is clearly
tracedin the following conclusion: “While agreeing with the
legitimacy of research and development ofindividual learning
technologies, development technologies and technological el
ements for their educationalimpact, it should be emphasized
thatin the real educational process, the functioning of such
technologies (evenif they areimplemented separately) has a
holistic eect on the pupil. atis why the term “Educational
Technology” most adequately meets the logic and nature of
deployedinteraction between the teacher and students“ [7].
us, itis necessary to highlight severalimportantis
sues regarding the functioning of Educational Technologyin
modern educational scope. First of all, itis a problem of the
Section 6. Pedagogy
structure of Educational Technology. ere can beidentied
the following key components: a conceptual one that reects
the “ideology” of design andimplementation of Educational
Technology; content and procedure that reects the objec
tives (general and specic objectives); content of educational
material, methods and forms of training, upbringing and de
velopment of students; methods and forms of teacher’s educa
tional activity; teacher’s management of educational process;
professional component that reects theinterrelation of suc
cessful performance, implementation of educational technol
ogy and level of educational excellence.
Domestic and foreign literature review of “Educational
Technology” denitions allows us to draw the following con
clusions:
technication of “intellectual production” what educa
tion stands for, is an objective, logical andirreversible process,
a means of boosting students’ educational level;
variety andvariabilityis tracedin the theory and teach
ing practice, which are determined by educational theories,
scientic approaches, concepts, principles, specic key as
pects and components of pedagogical process;
technologies of educational process are characterized
by multidimensionality, due to the peculiarities of the content,
methods and means ofinteraction between the parties of the
learning process;
structure of educational technologyincludes:
a) conceptual framework;
b) content part (goals, content);
c) procedural part work activity.
A cruciallyimportant aspect of Educational Technologyis
to determine child’s placein the educational process and teach
er’s aitude to children.Several types of technologies are con
sidered from this point ofview:
authoritarian technology
, where
the teacheris the sole subject of educational process and the stu
dent acts as the “object”, thatis passive knowledge “consumer”.
Such technologies, where demands and compulsion prevail, do
not contribute to theinitiative development andindependence
of students.
Instruction
centered technologies
of learning
are dis
tinguished by subject-subject relations a teacher and students,
where the main factors of personality formation are didactic
tools.
Personality
centered technology predicts that the studentis the
center of learning system.
Human
centered technologies
are where
child’s personality acts as the priority subject and the objective
of learning system. So, personality-centered technologies are
characterized by humanistic and psychotherapeutic dimen
sions and areintended for a diverse, free and creative child’s
development.
Human
personal technologies
are distinguished
by humanistic nature. ey “practice” theideas of respect and
love for a child, optimistic faithin his or her creative power and
deny compulsion.
Cooperation technologies
areinherentin de
mocracy and partnership of subject-subject relations between
the teacher and the student, who work together on achieving
the goal, implementation of the subject-maer, objectives, prin
ciples, methods and means of learning; analyze the results of
team-workin the classroom.
Free education technologies
involve
accentuation on student’s free willin life activities. Under these
conditions, a child fullls himself as the subject of education,
achieving the goal due tointernal motivation.
Esoteric technolo
gies
are based on the doctrines of esoteric teachings, i.
e. the
truth and roads that lead toit. Teaching processis no message,
no communication butintroduction to the Truth. A human be
ing (child) becomes the center ofinformationalinteraction with
the universe [7].
Views of the famous American philosopher and educator
J.
Deweyis the basis of projective technologies
. eir essenceis
that child’s capabilities are predetermined by nature, and
school should create the conditions for their development;
knowledge should help people adapt to the environment and
should be aimed at practical application. e author states
that “Itisimportant to subject learning content to practical
problems solution that corresponds to child’s abilities, train
ing andinterests” [8].
Domestic scientists have developed a number of manda
tory requirements for moderninterpretation of
projective tech
nologies
is the presence of educational problem, complexity
and urgency which meet the educational andvital needs of the
students; exploratory nature of problem solution; structuring
activity according to the classic stages of design; simulation of
conditions for students toidentify learning problems, amateur
nature of students’ creative activity; practical and theoretical
(butin any case practical) signicance of activity result (proj
ect) and disposition to practice (application); pedagogicalval
ue of activities (students gain knowledge, develop personal
qualities, master the necessary ways of thinking and acting)
[1]. Projects are classied according to certain parameters:
composition of participants’ projective activity, nature of part
nership between the participants of projective activity, extent
ofinterdisciplinary relationships, coordinative nature of the
project, purpose and character of projective activity.
Many personal theories, concepts and educational tech
nologies of students’ training and development have been
highlightedin research papers and methodological works
nowadays. Among them are humanist personality-centered
technology; technological system of education; education
enhancement technology whichis based on diagrammatic
and sign models of teaching material; prospectively advanced
Education Technology with the usage of reference schemesin
guided management; technology of stage dierentiation
andindividualization of learning; educational technology
which provides a system of productive teaching; game tech
nologies; teachware; computer technologies; technologies
which are based on didacticimprovement and reconstruc
tion of teaching material; experimental school technologies.
e review of domestic and foreign literature gives us the
grounds for the conclusion: theoretical foundations of Edu
cational Technology as well as social-managerial ones are:
a) philosophical trendsin education; b) psychological and
educational theories, scientic approaches, concepts and prin
ciples; c) factors that are determined by special features of or
ganization and content of social and functional management.
The role of educational leadership
in school principal’s job strains management
References:
Aleksiuk
A.
M., BekhI.
D. & Demkiv
T.
F.
Perspective Educational Technologies– Kiev Gopak.
Association for Educational Communications and Technology Task Force on Denition and Terminology. Educational
technology: Denition and glossary of terms,
– Vol. 1. Washington, DC: AECT.
D.
International Encyclopedia of Educational Technology, Second Edition (Resourcesin Education). Bingley, West
Yorkshire: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Goncharenko
S.
U.
Ukrainian Pedagogical Dictionary.
– Kiev Libed.
Mitchell
P.
Educational Technology. In the Encyclopedia of educational media, communications and technology, Westport,
Conn.: Greenwood Press.
Padalka
Ž.
S., Nisimchuk
….
‰., Smoliuk ¸.
Ž., & Shpuk
Ž.
Œ.
Pedagogical Technologies.
– Kiev: \t. \r‚\b\r¹.
– 1995.
Sysoieva
S.
Ž.
Pedagogical Technologiesin Modern– 1992–2002.
– Harkiv: Ž„.
– Vol. 2,
Tsyrlina
Œ., & Dewey
J.
Chicago Experimental School. On the Way to Perfection].
– Moskva.
DOI: hp://dx.doi.org/10.20534/EJHSS-17-2-47-49
Lezha Edit,
Ph.D Candidate
University of Shkodra “Luigj Gurakuqi,
Faculty of Educational Sciences,
Department of Psychology and Social Work
E-mail: [email protected]
The role of educational leadership
principal’s job strains management
Abstract:
School life constantly displays the demand for change and adaptation. ese requirements may be per
ceived as positive or negative challenges depending on their options for dealing with them. e aim of this paperis to
give a theoretical analyzes of principal’s job tasks andits relations to job strains management. Many dilemmas arose as
the principals aempted to balance these dual roles for educational leadership by blending the managerial responsibili
ties and the educational role behaviours. Educational leadershipincludes twointegrated roles, one being the managerial
role and the other the educational role. e principalis expected to embrace educational leadership practices focused on
teaching and learning by sharing power, acting democratically, and encouraging collaboration and participation; while at
the same time, providing clear leadership and guaranteeing the eciency of school management processes. Recommen
dations of what kind of strategies should be used are given based on the deduction from the analyzed theoretical models.
Keywords
: school principal, job strains, management, educational leadership.
Introduction
e hierarchical concept of educational leadership be
gan earlyin the development of public schooling, separating
administrative functions from pedagogical functions of edu
cators [4]. e hierarchyin education developed as a result
of masculine hegemony, with administrative abilities being
associated with males, and teaching associated with females
[1]. An elaborate system of administrative positions that has
expanded with the growth of districts and schools for the sake
of so-called eciency was developedin order to adequately
supervise the predominantly female and, therefore, relatively
weak, profession of teaching [4]. e widespread acceptance
of the bureaucratic-managerial model of leadership has been
detrimental to education, placing too much emphasis on
the decision-making ability of a few people and stunting the
growth of leadership among front-line personnel. e prevail
ing framework ofindividual agency, focused on positional
leaders such as principals, isinadequate because leadershipis
not just a function of what these leaders know and do [13].
Some administrators use the power of their positions ethically
and exhibit leadership, while other positional leaders aempt
to maintain power and/or manage people rather than lead.
Note that even while aempting to redene leadership,
Spillane, et al. refer to administrators as leaders [13]. Similarly,
the lack of an administrative position does not prohibit the
exercise of leadership. In fact, Heifetz (1994) believes that
the oppositeis true, that thosein positions of formal author
ity are constrained by their positions, while others can raise
the questions that need to be raised [8]. In schools, though,
most teachers continue to expect administrators to solve the
problems. In other words, teachers are accustomed to looking
to the principal as the decision-maker and educational leader.
Unfortunately, most administrators are well socialized to
the norms, values and rituals of schools, because they have
Section 6. Pedagogy
come up through the system, making themineective as change
agents, according to Elmore (2000) and Fullan, (1993) [4; 6].
osein administrative positions typically reproduce the exist
ing power structures. ey spend a relatively small amount of
their time onissues directlyinvolved withinstruction, because
they are generally preoccupied with policies and politics that
are tangential toinstruction [4].Educational leadership and
educationalimprovement are caughtin a stalemate between
those who have the power usingitin ways that reproduce the
existing system, while those who have the content knowledge,
expertise and creativity feel powerless to make changes toim
prove learning. e gulf between administration andinstruc
tion has widened as educational administrators areincreasingly
charged with the protection of the technical core of schooling
from outsideinterference [4]. Administrators areinundated
with powerful specialinterests that challengeinnovativeideas
[6], so that their timeis consumed by managing the structures
and processes that surroundinstruction [4].
Educational administration has become an endinitself rath
er than an extension of teaching as many administrators primar
ily concern themselves with being good managers. Leadership,
not management, is needed to solve complex problems that do
not have simple answers [6;8]. Superintendents, principals and
othersin administrative positionsin the education hierarchy are
expected to produce answers to complex problems that require
changesin aitudes and behaviours of parents, teachers and stu
dents. Heifetz (1994) refers to these as adaptive changes and
notes that habitual deference to thosein positions of authority
constrains leadership as leaders are expected to solve problems
that they cannot solve alone [8]. While anindividual administra
tor can aempt toinitiate changein a school, the reform will not
take hold without the support of the teaching sta [3].
Administrative leadership styles
Administrative leadership styles arevitalin determining
the organizational climate of work environments, and thisis
especially truein schools because schools are challenged to
provide learning environments more conducive to learning
[10]. Where power was once the key element of leadership,
itis now believed thatvision, commitment, communication
and shared decision-making are the cornerstones of eective
leadership. is changeis going from anindustrial model of
management to a more collaborative model [11].Site-based
managementis participatory governance, which focuses on
the school’simprovementinvolving all faculty and sta of that
particular school community [7].
To further complicate the maer of leadership, Jung and
Avolio (1999) concluded perceptions of leadership styles and
their eects on motivation and performance for followers dif
fer depending on the culture [9].Hence, the leadership style
used must be tailored not only to the environment, but also to
the culture and perceptions of the people being led.
Yukl (1989) studied organizational culture andits re
lationship to change. Yukl listed ve mechanisms of a good
leader that reinforced aspects of organizational culture: (a)
aention-leaders communicate priorities andvalues; (b)
reaction to crisis leaders see emotional crisis as potential
for sharing learning; (c) role modelling-leaders showvalues
such as loyalty, (d) self-sacrice and service; (e) allocation
of rewards-leaders establish criterion that communicates
whatisvaluedin the organization; and (f) criterion for se
lection and dismissal-leadersinuence culture by recruiting
people who have specicvalues, skills, or traits [14].
Sergiovanni (1990) found that leadership by bonding was
the cornerstone of eective long-term leadership strategy for
schools becauseit had the power to help schools transcend com
petence to excellence byinspiring extraordinary commitment
and performance, as perceived by the leaders’ followers [12].
Conclusion
Principals have been encouraged to build a school climate
with a mission, vision, and culture focused on teaching and
learning: (1) to raise student achievement, (2) to demonstrate
an expertisein knowledge of state standards and benchmarks,
and (3) ultimately to close the achievement gap [5]. e ac
countability mandates have taken the form of educational
leadership role responsibilities; however, they have also come
with additional managerial role responsibilities. e eect of
this controversial andinuential accountability movement on
educational leadership has been largely uninvestigated.
In conclusion, there were multiple factorsinuencing the
leadership role and behaviours of the school principal that
have generatedimplications and recommendations. Principals
reported spending signicant time on managerial leadership
behaviours, a shi from past ndings on the behaviours of prin
cipals. e resulting recommendation suggested alternative sta
support might be needed to prioritize educational leadershipin
the face of managerial demands. e dierencein the public
and private groups related to school size led to the recommen
dation that schools should work toward reducing their popu
lations through alternative strategies. ird, dierencesin the
work environment were reportedin the contextual criteria of
the school community leading to the suggestion for enhance
ment of the strength of communityinterest and support for the
school. Last, Blank (1987) recommended further work be done
to beer understand theinuence of external social and politi
cal goals, standards, and accountability on the middle manage
ment role of the school principal [2].
References:
Blackmore
J. In the shadow of men: e historical construction of educational administration as a masculinistí enterprise
In J.
Blackmore & J.
Kenway (Eds.) Gender maersin educational administration and policy– 1993,
– P. 27–48. Wash
ington, DC: Falmer Press.
Blank
R.
K.
e role of principal as leader: Analysisifvariationin leadership of urban high schools. Journal of Educational
Research,
Datnow
A.
Power and politicsin the adoption of school reform models. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis,
Elmore
R.
Building a new structure for school leadership. American Educator,
Fink
E., & Resnick
L.
B.
Developing principals asinstructional leaders. Phi Delta Kappan,
Fullan
M.
Leadingin a culture of change.
– San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Golarz RJ, Golarz MJ 1995. e Power of Participation: Improving Schoolsin a Democratic Society. Illinois: Research Press
Heitz, R.
A. (1994). Leadership without easy answers. Cambridge, MA: Belknap/Harvard University Press.
Jung
D.
I., & Avolio
B.
J.
Opening the black box: An experimentalinvestigation of the mediating eects of trust andvalue
congruence on transformational and transactional leadership. Journal of Organizational Behavior,
– 2000.
– 21, 949–964.
Lezoe
L.
W.
Eective school process. Okemos, MI: Eective School Products, Ltd.
Rost
J.
Leadershipin the future. In W.
E.
Rosenback and R.
L.
Taylor (Eds.). Contemporaryissuesin leadership. Boulder,
CO: Westview Press.
Sergiovanni, omas
J. “AddingValue to Leadership Gets Extraordinary Results.” Educational Leadership 47, 8– May,
– 23–27.
– EJ 410
Spillane, James
P., Rich Halverson, & John
B.
Diamond. “Investigating School Leadership Practice: A Distributed Perspec
tive.” Educational Researcher,
Yukl
G.
Leadershipin organizations, second edition. Englewood Clis, NJ: PrenticeHall.
DOI: hp://dx.doi.org/10.20534/EJHSS-17-2-49-52
Khasanova Zhamilya Sadikhovna,
p.s., professor, Atyrau engineering
humanitarianinstitute,
Republic of Kazakhstan
Kenesh Abdilda Sagadibekuli,
k.
p.s., docent, Karaganda state university named aer E.
A.
Section 6. Pedagogy
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\r\b \b\n \r\b\r \b \t‚\b\b, \r\b
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€\t\n\b\r,   \b\r\b,  \b €\n­\r\b.
ˆ\t\b\r\r \n\r\b\r \b\r\r\t €\t
\b \r \n\b \b\b \b­\b\r \b
‚\b\b \t\b\r \r\b€\r \t‚\r \t\b\t\b
\n\b «€\t\b\r \t\b €\t\b», \b
\r\b  \r‚\b \b­\r, \t\r \b \n\t\r\b\r
‚\r\b \n \n\b, \n\r\n \r €Š\r \r\r\b
\r \b \t‚\b \t\t\r.
Section 6. Pedagogy
„\b \t€\r \r € \t\r, \b
\b \b\b,  :  \n \t 
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– „.48–59.
DOI: hp://dx.doi.org/10.20534/EJHSS-17-2-52-55
CherniavskyŸVasil,
Kherson State Maritime Academy, Ukraine
D., Associate Professor, Dean of the Faculty of Navigation,
E-mail: Ch.
[email protected]
Fundamental training
industry
in accordance with
international requirements
Abstract:
In the articleis shown, that thevolume of the physical componentin the structure of the specialized
standard of training of marine specialistsin Ukraineisinsucient to provide them with fundamental knowledge of
the appropriate level. Itis stated that theimprovement of the physical component of the specialized standard should
be carried out takinginto account theinternational requirements for the physical knowledge of marine specialists,
displayedin the STCW Convention andIMO Model Course. e ways of solving this problem have been developed
and options for modernizing the training standard for marine specialists have been proposed.
Fundamental training
industry
in accordance with
international requirements
Keywords:
maritime educational eld, specialized standard of maritime specialists training, physical component.
At the present stage of mankind development the sig
nicant roleis devoted to the World Ocean, the resources of
which are decisivein accelerating the world economics de
velopment and are deemed to be a main factor of geopolitics.
e eective formation and realization of the government’s
maritime policy shall facilitate further consolidation of posi
tion of Ukraine as a maritime state and arrangement of en
abling situation for goals achievement and problem solving
connected with the development of the maritime activities.
us, the high-value target of the maritime educationis
training of the qualied specialists, that achieve a high profes
sional levelin the eld of chosen specialization as well as be
come uentin general scientic knowledge, have an advanced
scientic thinking, realize a modern scientic worldview.
However nowadaysin eld of maritime education there exists
a situation, that can be characterized by lack of fully approved
standards for specialized higher education, so that the educa
tional programs for each separate subject are developed direct
ly by educational establishment. When developing a program
for the specialized subjects, educational establishments are
able to be guided by theinternational requirements (Interna
tional STCW Convention and Codeincluding 2010Manila
amendments [3], IMO Model Course [4]), but when devel
oping a program for pure and natural sciences and subjects
there arises a signicant quantity of challenges and problems.
In particular, educational programs of the above-mentioned
subjects are developed by the teachers who are not special
izedin the maritime domain and who don’t always takeinto
consideration the recommendations of the specialists of the
graduating departments by the reasons ofinternal and exter
nal factors. As a result, there arises a
problem
, connected with
that most of the pure and natural sciences and subjects are
taughtin erratic manner, without a proper takinginto a con
sideration the practicalvalue of educational material as well
as structural and logic scheme of the speciality.
Nowadays the development of the maritime educationin
countryis brought under the regulations of such legislative,
statutory and regulatory acts as the Sea doctrine of Ukraine for
the period till 2035 [1], program for educational-qualication
level of Bachelor, speciality 6.070104 “Sea and river transport”,
qualication of Bachelor of Navigation, Bachelor of Ship power
plants operation, Bachelor of Electric engineering [2], qualica
tions of Navigator, Engineer, Electroengineer. ough, scien
tists haven’tinvestigated physics as a component of the standard
of the specialized education for maritime specialists, that dis
ables a fundamental educationif the eld of physics.
e purpose of the article\b
is to dene the reasons of aris
ing problemsin fundamental education of physics for special
ists of maritime eld as well as nding the opportunities and
ways of these problems’ solving.
e analysis of physics as a component of a structure of
specialized standard of higher education for maritime special
ists shows that the quantity of hours, devoted to the general
physics studiesis not enough to provide the students with the
fundamental knowledge. In particular, the course of general
physics studiesincludes 180hours for educational and quali
cation level of Junior Specialist and 360hours for Bachelor de
gree for all specialities: “Navigation”, “Operation of ships’ power
units”, “Operation of ship’s electric and automated equipment”
under the applicable educational and professional programs,
that makes 25% of hours of the standard of training for the pure
and nature sciences. is quantity of hoursisincludedinto the
curriculum of all educational establishments that arrange the
maritime specialists training. Moreover, physics studies give a
grounding for further studying of technical and specialized dis
ciplines, including “eoretical Mechanics”, “Resistance of Ma
terials”, “eory of Mechanisms and Machine Components”,
“Electric Engineering”, “Meteorology”, “Navigation and Pilots”,
“Ship Handling”, “Navigational Aids”, “Electrical Machinery”,
“Operation of ships’ power units”, “Engineering ermody
namics”, “Hydromechanics” and others.
Furtherinvestigationis devoted to the education for Bach
elor degree, as the major part of the Junior Specialists proceed
their studiesin order to get the educational and qualication
degree of Bachelor. Let’s compare the existing educational and
professional program with the previous specialized standard.
Specialized standard, developed by the Odessa National Mari
time Academy approvedin 2004was applicable up to 2012.
Under this standard physics studiesincluded 298hours and
9Modules (Table 1).
Table 1.
Content of skill
Name of the Module
Minimal quantity of hours/cred
its for studying the module
To be able to use the main fundamental
principles of the physics and theoretical
mechanics when completing profession
al tasks that are connected with the ship
movement.
Physical basis of mechanics.
Mechanical oscillations and waves.
Molecular physics and thermodynamics.
Electrostatics.
Direct current.
Magneticinteraction.
Wave optics.
Quantum physics.
Nuclear and elementary particle physics
Total
Section 6. Pedagogy
e quantity of hours wasincreased up to 360hours by
the applicable educational program of 2012, but the system
of the modulesis still not developed. Today every educa
tional establishment developsits own system of modules and
educational programs. Aer having analyzed the educational
programs of physics for Bachelor degree of the most educa
tional establishments of Ukraine, we draw aention to their
common characteristics.
e authoring team during the development of the pro
grams were oriented to the traditional approach to general
physics studies, aimed to all-around and fundamental training,
oen not takinginto consideration practical relevance of the
material for certain speciality. For example, in Kherson State
Maritime Academy educational programs for Engineers and
Electrical Engineers totally coincide, educational program
for Navigatorsis also almostidentical with them, dierences
make no more than 5%. But specialists of these three speciali
ties discharge dierent functions, thatis why cadets shall have
fundamental knowledgein dierent elds.
Let’s specify the main parts and short topic-based plan
ning of educational material, thatisincludedinto the appli
cable physics program for Bachelor degreein Kherson State
Maritime Academy.
Content of the program
Part 1. Physical basis of mechanics.
(36class hours)
Elements of particle kinematics. Elements of dynamics.
Work and energy. Conservation law. Rotative action.. Elements
of mechanics of rigid bodies.. Mechanical features of rigid bodies.
Elements of continuum mechanics. Special theory of relativity.
Part 2. Molecular physics and thermodynamics.
(36class hours)
Basis of thermodynamics. e kinetic theory. Consis
tence. Transfer phenomenon.
Part 3. Basis of electrodynamics.
(60class hours)
Electric eld. Conductors and dielectricsin electric elds.
Electric current. Electric current. Magnetic eld. Materialin
magnetic eld. Maxwell’s equations. Electric curl eld.
art 4. Mechanical oscillations and waves.
(16hours)
Mechanical waves. Electromagnetic oscillations. Forced
oscillations. Acoustic and electromagnetic waves.
art 5. ptics.
(14class hours)
Elements of physical optics. Doppler eect. Sources of
quantum radiation. Basis of geometrical optics. Basis of pho
tometry.
art 6. Quantum physics.
(26class hours)
Elements of quantum theory. Semiclassical theory of hy
drogen atom. Mainideas of quantum mechanics. Elements
of quantum mechanics. Quantum theory of hydrogen atom.
Features of atom, molecules and condensed state of the mate
rial. Nuclear physics.
Total 188\bclass hours
Programs of the other maritime educational establish
ments mostly do not dier according to the content, struc
ture and approach to the educational program planning. e
programs for dierent specialities also have muchin common.
Let’s describe the system of modules thatis proposed under
the Model CourseIMO 2013for the speciality “Operation of
ships’ power units” (Table 2):
Modules
Quantity of
contact hours
Basis of Engineering Sciences
Mass andvolume
Basis of dynamics
Energy, work, capacity
Molecular theory
Heat
ermodynamics
ermodynamic features
ermodynamic energy
ermodynamic systems
Conversion of energy
Heatinterchange
Vapour
Perfect gas
Thermodynamic process
Work
Mechanics
Statics
Dynamics
Hydrostatics
Hydraulics
Total
All above-mentioned modules are kept the same for the
speciality “Operation of ship’s electric and automated equip
ment”, but one substantive part of material connected with the
electric engineering and electronics studiesis added (Table 3):
ble 3.
Modules
Quantity of
contact hours
Basis of electric engineering
and electronics
Basic concepts of electric engi
neering
Electrostatics
Electric force
Electric elds
Potential dierence
Current
Basic laws of electric current
¡lectrical cirles
Conductors, semiconductors
andisolators
Magnetics and electromagnetics
Total
Requirements of theInternational Maritime Organiza
tion for the physico-mathematical disciplines are stillin the
Fundamental training
industry
in accordance with
international requirements
process of the development for the speciality “Navigation”.
However previousversion of the Model Course devoted only
200class hours for physics studies.
us, the comparative analysis of the national physics pro
grams for maritime specialists training and the requirements
of the basic Model CoursesIMO gives a ground to conclude:
International Maritime Organization sets the advanced
requirements for the fundamental training of maritime spe
cialists, including physics studies. Under the Model Cours
esIMO, the quantity of contact hours shall be not less than
200–250depending on the speciality taken. ough, educa
tional programs, which are used by national maritime educa
tional establishments for specialists training, devote less class
hours.
ereis a signicant dierencein the approach to the
educational material and system of modules planningin na
tional andinternational standards. Under the Model Cours
esIMO, when planning of physics Modulesis based on the
pragmatic, competency-oriented approach, programsinclude
only the material that would be essential for the acquirement
of the professional competences, while the programs of the
national educational establishmentsinclude the material
thatis required for the formation of the consistent physics
worldview, though sometimes this materialis not required
for one or another speciality. Because of this, the quantity of
the class hours, devoted to the physics studies, thatis pro
fessionally reasonable, decreases as compared to the Model
CoursesIMO.
Consequently, we can make a
conclusion
: priority task
of higher educational establishments that arrange training
of the maritime specialists, shall be reconsideration andim
provement of physics component of the specialized standard,
realization of whichis quiteimportant according to thein
ternational requirements for the physics training of maritime
specialists. Considering the abovementioned, there arises a
needin creating a methodological system of physics studies
for the maritime specialists, that shall takeinto account the
requirements of theinternational and national standards as
well as the competency-oriented approachin maritime spe
cialists training.
e prospects of the maritime educational eldinvolve
the development, improvement andimplementation of the
consistent specialized standard of maritime specialists train
ing, that conduces eective coordination of the activity of the
higher maritime educational establishments of Ukraine and
encourages the acquirement of the general scientic and pro
fessional competences by the graduates of these educational
establishments.
References:
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ž\n\r\b \t \b¼ ¹\b \t¼\b. Ž¹-\t \r¹ \t\t ¹\b €\t \t\n ¹\b
6.070104 «‰\t\b  \t¹­\b \t\t», ¹ ¹‚¹¼ €\t \n¹, €\t \n¼ \r\r\t\r\b\b,
€\t \n¼ \r\r\t\r¹\b. ‰¹¹\r\t ¹\b ¹ \n\b, ¹  \t\n \t¼¹.
– ƒ.,
International Convention on Standards of Training, Certication and Watchkeeping for Seafarers as amended, including
the 1995and 2010Manila Amendments. STCW Convention and STCW Code. 2011edition. Language (s): ENG, FRE,
SPA, RUS, CHI, A½ (IMO-IC938)
IMO Model Course 7.02On ocerin charge of a navigational watch. Sub-commiee on standards of training and
watchkeeping. STW 44/WP.6/Add.1
2May– 2013. Original: English.
Section 7. Sociology
DOI: hp://dx.doi.org/10.20534/EJHSS-17-2-56-58
Peshherov GeorgyIvanovich,
doctor of military sciences, professor,
academician academy of military sciences
œ-mail: georgiy
[email protected]
The problem of regulation of the social climate
The problem of regulation of the social climate
\b\b\n. \t\r\n\r \b\b\n‚\b\b‚\b\b, \t‚\r

\t\r\n\b\t\b ‚\b \b €\r\r \t\b
€\t\r\r € \t\n ‚\r\r\t\r, \n\t 
\r \r\b, \t\b\r\b\t \r\t\b\r
\t\r\b ‚\b\n\r \b\t\b\b\r \r \n\r \r\r\b
\r \t\r\r\r \t\r\n\t (\t, \t\b \b.
.).
ˆ\t\r \t\r\n\b\t\b   \t\r\r\r\r
\t\b \r\r\b, \t\r   \t\r \t
‚\b\r \b‚\b  \b‚\r\r\b\r, €\t\r\r
­\b \t\r\b €\r. Ž\n  ‚\r \t\r\n\b\t
\b  \t\r\r\b,  \r€\b \b\r\b
\r\b \r\n \r\r\b\r \b­\b \b\b\r\r
\r  €\r, \b ‚\r\b, ‚\r\b \b­
\b, \r \b\b \b\n\r\n \b €‡\r\b \n
\b. ˆ€ \t\r\n‚\b \n\r\r \r
\b\r\b\r ‚\r \t \r \t\r
\b\r. Ž€\r  € \f\r \r \t\b\b
\r\r €\b €\r € ‚\b \r\b
, \n‚\b\b \t  , ­  \t\r\n\b\t\n\r
€\r\r\r Š\r\b \b\r\r\b\r  \r, \r\t
\b\r €\r\r\n  \b‚\b\b\n, €\n, 
\b €\t, ‚\r\r\t\r\b \n‚\b\b\t\b
\b\t\b\b €\r ‚\r \b\r \r \f\r\r,
\rŠ\b \b\t \r \b­ [1, 32–33].
Ž\t\r ­\r\b\r ‚\b \b €\r
\r   ‚\b-\b\b­\r \b\f\b­\r
 \b\n‚\b \t\r, \r \n\t\r \t\b\b\r\b
€\r. \t\b €\r\r ‚\r ——\r \r
\b€\r\t-\r\t\b­\r\b \t\r \t \t\bŠ 
\r \n\t\r \t \b\t\b‚\b \t\b‚\b\b
\b\r\r\r\b €\r. ˜\bŠ\b \r\b
\t €  \t\b‚\b\r \r\t\b \t\r
 \b\t\r\t \t\t\r\r\r\b \r\t\b €,
\t\b\t \n\t. ™\r\r , \r€\b
\r\b, ­ „\r „ \r €\b  \r\b­
\r \n\b  \t\b\b \b­\b, ,  
\t\b \r \r\b\r\b,  ‚\r
 \t\b\b ­\r\r \r€\b €\r\r \r\b\r \n\b
\n\r\b, \t\b\t\n \b\r ­\r\r\r \r\n  \b
\b  €\t‚ \b\b\r. ƒ\r­, \r \b\r
\r\f, \t\b­\r, \r ‚\b\b,  \b\r
«\r\t\b­\r ‚\b\b» \t\r\t \t\b\r
ƒ\b\r, ­ \t\b\b\r \r€\t ‚\b\b
\r\t \r\t\r\b \t (š\r‚\b, …\t\b)
\b.
. [2, 12–13].
 \t\r\n\r \t\r\r ‚\b-\b\b­\r\b
\b\f\b­\r\b \t\r€\t\b, \r\t­ \t
\b €\r\r \b , \b\r\t\t \b\t
\t\b\b \r \b\t\r\r \t\bŠ \n
\r\r\r \r\t\b\r \t\r\b\r \r\r\b \t.
Ž€\r \b \n\t ‚\b\n \b\n €\r
\r \r ­\t\r\r\t \t\b\b\b‚\b €\r (\f
\b‚\b\r \t\b\b\r\b €\r \t\r\b ­\r\b
0,7\t\b \b  ­\r\b\b 1), \r \r
\n  \t \t\b „‰†, \b\b\n\t\b, Š\n-€\b\r, \t
\n‚\b \t \t \b\b \r € 
Š\r\b  \t\b\r \t\r\n \f\r\r 

€\r\r.
ˆ\t\b­\r \t\bŠ\rŠ \t \t‚\b \t\b
€\r \b \t\r\t Š \r\t\b\b, \b ­
\r \t\r\r \t \r\r \r\t\r 
‚\b\b \b\b\n, , \t\b\r\t, \f \t\bŠ
\t\r\r ƒ\b\r, \r \t\b\b\r \r \t­ \f
\b\b \r ‚\b\b\b­\r\b \t\b‚\b
\b. ƒ \b\t, ˜\b\b,  
\t\b \b\r \n\t\b\b, \r\t\rŠ\b \t\n, €\r
\n \r­Š\r \b\b,  \b \r €\b
\t\t\nŠ\r, \r \t\r \n\b €\r, \b\r
\r\b \t\r\n\b\t\b ‚\b \b €\r
\r [3, 39].
 \t\r\r ˜\b\b \n\r  \n\b, \r\b
\r\t\b \n\b\b\b \t \n\t, \r\r \n
  \t\b\t \r  \t\b‚\b\b \b\r
\r\r\b €\r \b\b   \t\b\b
\r\b \t\r\n\b\t\b ‚\b \b €\r
\r. Ž,  €\b\b‚\b\b ‚\b \b
 \t\b €\r\r, \r\b , \r\r \r.
‘ \b\r\b €\t\b ‚\b \b
\r€\b ‚\r\t‚\b \n\b\b \r \b\r\t\r
 \n\t\r \b€\r\r \t\b‚\b, 
\t€ \t‚\b \r \b\t\b-
\t € \b\b\r\b\r \r€\b \r\t\b\b
\b \b\b­\r  \r\t\r, ­€ \r\r
\b\t\b-\t\r  €\b \r\t\r\r \t\r
\b.
‘­  \t€\r \t\r\n\b\t\b\r ‚\b
 \b €\r\r \b \t\n€\r \t.
‹ , ­\t\r\r\t \b€\r\t\b, \t\r\n\b\t\b\b
‚\b \b €\r\r, €\r\b \r\t
\r\b \t \b\t\b ­\r\t\r\n \r\t\t\rŠ\b \t€\r,
  \b\t, \b \t\n\n\t,
€\t\b\r \b‚\b \t \t‚\b\r \n\b
 ¡\t .  \b\t,  
\b‚\r \t\b \b \t, ­\b\r \n\r
‚\b \b €\r\r, \r \r\t\r\r\r‚ \t\n
\t\b€\b   ‚\b\b\b \n\b
\b\t\r\r, ­  \b  ‚\b \t
\t‚\b\b \t\r€\n\r \r\b \r \r.
‹\r \n­Š \b\n‚\b \t\n\b \t, .
­. „š…,
\r \b\t   \b ‚\b\n, €\r\r\r
\t\b‚\b\b \b\t\r€\n  \n\t \r\b \b
\t\r€\b \t\r\b  ‚\b-\f\b­\r\b
€\r\r \b \t\b\b, \t\r \b \b\r\b 
\r \t\b\r. ˆ\t\r\r, ­ \t\r\r ­\r \t
\t\b‚, \n € \t\t€ \r\b ‚\b\b
‚\b\b \t\b\r\b \b\t  \n\b \b\t\r\r
\b \f\b­\r\b\r \b \n\t \b €
\n\t\n. ‘ \t \t€\r \t\n \b\r
\t\r\r\r \t\b\r \n\t, \t\rŠ\r\b\r \t,
\r\b  \r‚\b\b, \r\t\r\b\b €\bŠ\r
\r\t\r\b\r.
ˆ\t\b \r  \t\r\n\b\t\b ‚\b
\b €\r\r, \b€Š\n  \t\n 
\r \t\b\b\r €\r. Ÿ\r \n\r \r\b,
­ \t\b\b\r €\r   \b\b\r

\t\b­\r \t, \b€\r\r ­\b\r\b \b\t
 :
\b­\r \n\r \t\r \b­\r \b €Š\r, \r
Š\r \r \t\b\b\r\b €\r, \n
€ \b\r ­\r\r, \t\r €\r, \r \r
\t\b\t\n\r  \n\t \r\b, \b \b\t\n\b\r
\r\b\r €\r\b  \t\r \b\b, \t\r \r\t\r
\b  \t \b \r\b\r \b,  \r;
\b€\r\t\r \t\b‚\b \t\b‚\b\b \b\r \b
\r\b \b, \t\r\n\r ­\r  \t\r\r \r
 \r\r \n\tŠ\r\b, \t\b­\r\b \t
  \b \t\r‚\b\b\b.
§\r €Š\r €\r\r  \r \t\b\b \t
Š, \r \r\r ‚\b \b \b\r \t\n\r\r \t
\b ‚\b\r \t\r\n\b\t\b\r. ‘\r €\r
€\n  \t\b\t\b  €\r\r \b\b 
Š\r\b \t\b\b\n, \r\b  \t\b\r \n€Š\b
\b\r \t\r\n\b, ­\r\n €\r \t\b\b­\b
\t \r\r \r\b\r. Ž€\r \n\b \t\b\b
 \b\n‚\b \t\r,  \n\r\r\b \t\nŠ \b
\b\r \b\r\r \t\b\r\b\t, \n\r\b \t\b\b
\r ‚\b ‚\r\r \b­\n  \t\b\b \b
\r\t\r\t\b\r‚\b \t\b\b\n  \b\r\r\r
€\r\r. †\r \f\n \r\t Š \t‚\r\r
\t\r\n\b\t\b ‚\b \b €\r\r 
€ \b\r\b\r \b­\r \n\r \b\n\r­\r\b\r \t\r
\b €\b \b \r \bŠ\r\b €, ­
\b\b \r \t‚\r\r \t\r\b €\r.
ˆ\t\b \f \r\t\r\n  \b\b  ‚\b \t\r\n\b\t
\b €\r\r  \b \t\r \t\r\n\b\t
\b\r, \t\r \t\r\t\b\n\r \b­\b\r ‚\r\r\t\r
 \r\b \n\t €\r\r\r Š\r\b
\t\b \b \r‚\b  \t\b\b­\r\b \t\r \b\r,
\t\r \t\r \b €\b\b‚\b  \b\n\t­\b
\b\r. ˆ\b \t \t\r\n\b\t\b \t‚\r\n \t\r\n
\b\t\b ‚\b \b €\r\r \r€\b
\t\b\r ‚\b-\b\b­\r\r, \f\b­\r\r,
\t\r\b\b\r, \b \t‚\b\r \b\t\n\b\r \b \t\r\n\b\t
\b. \t\r\r \n\b \n­\r €\r\r
\b \t‚\b €\r, \t\r\r ‚\r\r
€\t  ­\b \r\t\b\r \r\b

‚\b
\t\r\n\b\t\b [4]:
\rŠ\b \t\r\n\t \r\r\b (\t \b\r\r\r
\b, \t\b \r\r\b, \b\t\n‚\b  \r‚\b\b
\t\b­  \r\t \b\r\r\r\b €\r, \r
 \b.
.);
\t\r\r‚\b  \r\r\b \r\r\b \r\b\b
\n­-\r\b­\r\b \t‚\r \b\t\r\b\r \t
\b\b\r €\r;
\t\r\n\b\t\b\r \r\r\b  \r, Š\b\t \t\b\r
€\r\r\r \b\b\r \t\b‚\b\b, „‰† \b.
.;
\t\r\r\r\b\r ‚\b  \r \t\n \r\r\b
\n­\r \t \t\b €\r \b\f\b\b \r\r\b \r‚\b
\b, \n\r \b \r\r \t\b­ €
 \b\r\r\r\b €\r;
\b\b\r \r  \t\r\n\b\t
\b ‚\b \r\r\b, \n   ­\b \t€
\n \b \t\n\b (\r\b, \r\b, \t\b,
\t\n\b \r\b \b.
.), \t\b‚\b  \r €
\r\r \r\r\b  \r, \n\n\t\r €\r\b\r  
\r \t\b­ \t \t\b, \t\b\r
\b\n\t\b\b­\r\b \r\t\t\b\b, \b \b\r\t\r,
\r\r \t\n \b.
., \t\b‚\b \n\n\t-
\n \r\t\t\b\b, \r \t\n \r\r
€\t\b\b  \r\t\t\b\t\b \r , ‡\r,
Š\b\t\r \t\b\r­\r\b\r \t\r  \b \t‚\b\b
\r\t\r­\r \b\b  \b\r\r\r\b 
\r\r\b \r, \t, \t.
 \t‚\r\r ‚\b \t\r\n\b\t\b \r€\b
\b ‚\b-\b\b­\r\b\r \r\b
\t\r\n‚\b\b, \t\r  ­  \r \t\r \r\b
\n€\r\r\b, \b\n\b\t\b, \t\b\n\r\b \r
\b \t\r \b\t, \r \b\t\r ‚\b
\r\b\b \b‚\b \b\r\r\t\b\b, ‚\b 
\b\t\b \b\t\b\t\b, \r\b \b\b\b
\n\t\r\b \b\t. Œ \r  \t€\r\r
\t\r\n\b\t\b ‚\b \b €\r\r \n­\r
\r €\r\r \r\r\b (‚\b\b, ,
\t \r\b\b, \t, \t\r\b €\r\r, ,
\t\r\b\b\b \b.
.) \r \t\b\r\b \b\b\r \t\r\n
\b€\r\r­\b \b\r €\t\b ‚\b \n\b
 \t\b\b
\b­\b.
\r\f \n\t\n:
…\r\r\r
„.
„.
Œ\r\t\b \t.
– ‰.: †\r ™¡ƒ,
– „.32–33.
©\b­
›.
„.
ˆ\t \b‚\b\b.
– ‰.,
– „.12–13.
…\t\b
¢.
….
‰\b\t‚\b \b\n‚\b \b\r\r \b\b\r \r\b\r \t\r \b\t\r\b\r//‰\b\t‚\b \b\n\t\r
€\r. …\r \b\r\b. „€\t\b \r\t\bIX ‰\r\n\t \r\b\t \n
\t€\r \b\t‚\b\b (23–24\b  2003., ‰).
– ‰.,
– „.39.
†\r\t\r-: URL:
hp://¾.ru/article/161029/primeryi-sotsialnyih-norm-v
obschestve-vidyi-sotsialnyih-norm
Some characteristics of the way of life of workers
DOI: hp://dx.doi.org/10.20534/EJHSS-17-2-59-64
Hoang Šanh Ha,
PhDin Sociology
 
­\r \b\r\r \t\n \b\r\t\b\r
ˆ\t   \t\r\b \t \t\r\b 1200\t€­\b, \t€
 \b \tŠ\r  Š\r\b \t \b\t
\b‚\b,  ­ —, ™\b, ‘, ƒ\n,
™\b \b—Š\b\b. †\r\b\r \t\b 
, 20152016. Ž\b \b\r\r\b\b
\r\b \b ‚\b\b­\r\b \t,  ­\r\r
€ \r\b\r, \n€\b \b­ \b\r\t  \b\t\n
\b\r\t . Ž ­, \r \b \r \b
\r\b, € «\b €\r\b €\t \b\b
\t€­\b \rŠ\b \tŠ\r  \b\b \b­\b
€\t \b\b \t€­\b, \b\r €\r». 
­\r\r \r\t\r\b­\r  \b\r\b € \b
 \r\t\b \b\b­\r \b\r\t‚\b\b.
 \r\b\b  \r\t\b\r €\t \b\b ­\r
\r \r \t\n ‚\b\b‚\b\b \b­\b \t
 ‚\b \t\r, \t \b­ \t\b\b\r
\b\r \n­\b\r. \r ‚\b \b\r\t‚\b \b­
\n­\b \r\b \r\r\b, \t\b\t\n\r \b\b \b\r\r Š\r
\b\r \f\b­\r\b \b\n\n\t ‚\r, \t\r\t\r \b
\b \t \r\r\b. Œ\b €\t, ­€ 
\r\b \t\b\t\b \b\b\r\r\b €\t \b\b
\t€­\b \tŠ\r , \r€\b \b\n­ \b
\b\r\t‚\b\b \t\r ‚\b \t\r\r, \r \b 
  \b\b \n­\b\b.
 \t€\r «„‚\b \b \t€­\b \t
Š\r  \r» (. VI1.1–2013–26)

\b\r «€\t \b\b \t€­\b» \b  €\r
\b €  ‚\b \t\n, \t\r\r €
\t\r Š\r\b \b\b\r \t\r\n\t

\t\b
\b \r\r\b. Ž€\t \b\b \t\r\r  \n€‡\r
\b\r \t, \b\r  €\t\b\r, , \t\r
\b \b\b\b\b­\r\b\r €\r\b, \r €‡\r\b
\r \t, \b\r  \b\r \t\r, \t€­ \t\r
\b\t\n\b\r ‚\b-\f\b­\r\b\r \n\b. «˜€­\b»
\t\r\r\r  \b\b\b, \t€ \b \r\t\r\r
\b\b \t\b \t\r\t\b\b.
 1.
–  \r\f- \r\f\n \t
\b\r \n\n \r\f\t\n\f

 \n
 \n \n\t 
…\b\r \n­\b\r €\r\r €\t\b\r \r\t\t\b\b
…\b\r \n­\b\r \r\t\t\b\b \r\r \t\b\b
™\r\t  \b\b \r
­\b\r €\t\b\r ­\r \t\b
ˆ\t\t/\n­\b\r \t\b \r\t\t\b\b
…\b \t\b \t\r\b\t
­\b\r  €\b\r\b \t\n \b\n€
ˆ\t\t/\n­\b\r \n ‚\r\t
˜\r\n\t\r \r\r\b\r \b\b-\f\b­\r\b\b \b, \t\b
‚\b €\r\b
­\b\r \t\r\b\b \r\t\t\b\b
€\t\b , \t\r Š\b \t\b€\t
­\b\r \b\t 
‹\b­\b\r \b\r \t€\b
Ÿ\r \r\b (\n\t\r€\r\b\r €Š €‡\r \b\t \b)
ƒ\t­\r \b\t\r \b\t
ž\n\b\r
†\t  \r\t \b\t \n€
™ \t\b\r\b
ƒ \b \b\t€\t\b \r \r\r\b\r
ˆ \b
ˆ\n: \r\b  2014. \n \b ƒ \n\n \t«‡ \n 
\n „\n\f \t\f \r\f \t» (. VI1.1–2013–26)
„   \r €\b \tŠ\r \t\r\r, 
€\t\r \t\b\t \r\t €\t.
 \b\r\n\r \t\r\b\r \n\r \r\t 
€\t\b  €\t\b \n \tŠ\r\n  \n. 
\b\f\b \tŠ\r   ­\r\t\r \r\t\n 
€\t\n € €\t \t\b \t\r\r\b, \r
\r \r\t\r\r \t\b\r. ‘Š\r € 
\r \b \t€­\b, \r \t\r\r \t \b\b\r\t .
†1200 \r €\t \n\b 1172
  \b\t\t\r \r\r. ˆ\r €\t€\b 
\t\t SPSS 20\b €\b \n­\r \r\n \b\r \t\r
\n:
‘ \n\r\b €\r\r €\t \b\b \t€
­\b \tŠ\r   \b\b \t
Some characteristics of the way of life of workers
\b, \b\r \t\r­ \t \b \b\t\r\r
\r\b\r \n\t\r\r \r\b ­\r\t\r \r Cronbach
Alpha (\t \b 0,876). ˆ\t\b ‚\r\r \r\t\b
\n
\t, \b­\r \n \b \t 
\t\n\b  \b\b, ­ \t\r\n \t\r \t\n 
\t   \b ­\b, \f \t (1) \n­\b\r
€\r\r \r\t\t\b\b, (2) \n­\b\r \r\r
\r\t\t\b\b \b(3) \b \r\t\t\b\b \n­\b
\r \t\n\r. • \t\b \b ‚\b \b\b, 
\t \t€­\b\r \n­\n  \r\r

\b\b.
\n   \n­, \n €‚ \bƒ
­ €\n\f\n­
ˆ \t\r\n \b  € \r, ­
\t \r\t \t\n \b ‚\b \b\b,
\r ­\r, \t \t€­\b\r \t\r\n\t \t\b\b
  \n­\b\r,  ­  «\b\r \n­\b\r €\r\r
€\t\b\r \r\t\t\b\b» (\t\r\b € 2.039);
«€\t\b\r\n  ­\n \t\b» (\t\r\b € 2.114),
«\n­\b\r  €\b\r\b \t\n \b\n€» (\t\r\b
€ 2.039) \b«\b\r \n­\b\r \r\t\t\b\b \r\r
\t\b\b» (\t\r\b € 1.959). ‘\r \t\r\n
 , ­ \t€­\b\r \tŠ\r  ­
\n­\n  €\r\r \b€\t\b\r \r\t
\t\b\b \r\r \t\b\b. \b \b\b, \t
\r\r Š\r\b\r ­\r \b\b \t€­\b, \b\r 
\t\b\r \r\t\t\b\b \b‚\r\t, \r \n­ 
\b\b\r \t \t€­\b. „\t\r\b \b \b\b,
\t\r\r \t€­\b \r\b, \r\r «€\r
\t  \r», \t \t\r 
\t€­\b \b\b.
 2.
–  \n\f\t \n\f, \t
\r\n\f\n \f\t\f \n
„ …‚  
\r\n‚ 
…\b\r \n­\b\r €\r\r €\t\b\r \r\t\t\b\b
…\b\r \n­\b\r \r\t\t\b\b \r\r \t\b\b
™\r\t  \b\b \r
­\b\r €\t\b\r ­\r \t\b
ˆ\t\t/\n­\b\r \t\b \r\t\t\b\b
…\b \t\b \t\r\b\t
­\b\r  €\b\r\b \t\n \b\n€
ˆ\t\t/\n­\b\r \n ‚\r\t
˜\r\n\t\r \r\r\b\r \b\b-\f\b­\r\b\b \b, \t\b ‚\b
€\r\b
ˆ\n: \r\b  2014. \n \b ƒ \n\n \t«‡ \n
\n „\n\f \t\f \r\f \t» (. VI1.1–2013–26)
 \r \t\r \t€­\b\r \r\n\r  €Š \b
\b \r\r\b  \b\b-\f\b­\r\b\b \b
\b\t\b ‚\b €\r\b. Œ 59%
\t€­\b ­\b  \b \b\b-\f\b­\r \b
\n‚\b\b \t\r \b\b\n‚\b\b ‚\b €\r
  (50.2% \t\r ­\b , 9% ­). ‹\r\t ,
­ ‚\b-\b\b­\r\b\r \t \r\b\r  \t
Š\r\b \b\b \t€­\b,  \t€\r \t \b
\t\r€\b\r\b ‚\r, 50% \t€­\b, \t\nŠ \f\b
\t \f ­\r \b \r, \t\r€\n \b
\b\r\r\b. ƒ \b\r, \t€­\b  \f 
\b\n \b, €\t\n  \n ˆ\t\b\b. ˜€­\b
 \r\r €Š\n  \r\r €\n­\b\r
\t \b\t, \b- ­\r  \r\r  \r ‚\b
-\b\b­\r‚ \b\b \t \b€ \t\nŠ
\t€\r €\r. \r\t \b\r\b €\b
\t\r\r \n\b Š\r\b ‚\b-\b\b­\r
\b \t€­\b ­\r\t\r \r‚\b\r \r\t\t\b\b, 
\t \r\r \b\t € \b\t€. • \t\b­\r\b\r
\r\t\t\b\b \r \t\r\t, \t\b\r
\t‚\r\r \t\b, \t\r\r \n\t\r\r\b\r 
\t\b\b, Š\r\b\r \b \b‚\b\b \b\r\t\r\r
\r \n\b \b\r\t\r\b \t€­\b.
„\b\r \b \n­\r \b \t,
 , \t, \r \b\r, \r\r\r \r\b\r
\b \t€,   \r\n \b\r \t\r\n:
2.1.  \r\f \n\r\t \b,   
\n\t\n\f  \r\f\b  \f \b
 \t  \b\r\b  \t\r \r
\b \t,  \r\r\t\r \t\b­\b \b  \n\t\r
\b\b \t€­\b €\r\r \r\t\t\b\b. \t\r
\n\r \b € \r \r\r\t-€\n\r\r
\t\b­\b \b\r \b\b «…\b\r \n­\b\r €\r
\r €\t\b\r \r\t\t\b\b». ‘\r

\t\b­\b \b\r  \b\b­\r\n  ‚\r \t\b \t=0.007.
ƒ\t\r , €\b \n\r \t\b­\b \b \t
‚\b \b\b,  «\n­\b\r/\t\t \t\b
 \t\t» \b«\t\b \t\r\b\t»,  \f\b
\t\b­\b €\b , \t=0.046\b0.012.
Œ\t\r €\b‚ \t\r \r\r\t\r \t\b­\b \n\r
«\r\r\b\r \b\b-\f\b­\r\b\b \b
\t \b\t\b ‚\b €\r\b».
‰\n­\b ­\r \b€Š\r \t\r\r\b \n\r  
‚\b-\f\b­\r  \r\t\r \b \r\t\r ‚\b
€\r\b.
 3.
–  \n\n\n\f \n, \t 
\f \t
\n\f\t \n\f
„ …‚  
\t 
†ƒ
…\b\r \n­\b\r €\r\r €\t\b\r \r\t\t\b\b
…\b\r \n­\b\r \r\t\t\b\b \r\r \t\b\b
™\r\t  \b\b \r
­\b\r €\t\b\r ­\r \t\b
ˆ\t\t/\n­\b\r \t\b \r\t\t\b\b
…\b \t\b \t\r\b\t
­\b\r  €\b\r\b \t\n \b\n€
ˆ\t\t/\n­\b\r \n ‚\r\t
˜\r\n\t\r \r\r\b\r \b\b-\f\b­\r\b\b \b, \t\b
‚\b €\r\b
ˆ\n: \r\b  2014. \n \b ƒ \n\n \t«‡ \n
\n „\n\f \t\f \r\f \t» (. VI1.1–2013–26)
2.2. \n\f \r\f \n\r\t \b,   
\n\t\n\f  \r\f\b  \f \b
 \t \b \t€­\b\r €\b \t\r\r \t\r
\t\r \r\t\b\b 17–20\r, 21–30\r, 31–40\r,
41–50\r \b51–56\r. \t\r\n\r \b € \r,
­ \t \t€­\b \b\r \b \b €\r\r
 \r\t\t\b\b
\r \t\b­\b ‚\b \b\b \t€­\b \t
 \t \b\r  \b\b­\r\n  ‚\r, 
\r\r \t 0.0010.037.
2.3. \r\f \f\n  \f\f\n \n\r\t \b,  
  \n\t\n\f  \r\f\b  \f \b
˜\r\n \r\b  , ­ \n\r\n
  \t\b­\b ‚\b \b\b \t€­\b, \t\b
 \b \t \r. ‘\r \t\b­\b \t 
\t\r \b \b\b, \b\r «\t\t\r/\n­\b\b
\t\b \r\t\t\b\b», «\b \t\b
\t\r\b\t\r» \b«\t\r\n\t \r\r\b\b \b\b-\f
\b­\r\b\b \b \b\t\b ‚\b €\r
\b» (\r p = 0.000). ™ \r, ­
\t€­\b, \b\n\b\r \r €\r \r, 
­\r \t\b\b  \n­\b\r \r\t\r­\b\r \b ‚\b
 \b\b, ­\r \r,  \b  \b\r \b\b \b\n
€\r\b\b.
2.4. \r\f  ­   \n\r\t \b,
   \n\t\n\f  \r\f\b  \f \b
ˆ\t\b \r\b\b ‚\b \b\b \t€
­\b \t \r\r \r\b\r, €\b \r\r
\t\b­\b, \b\r \b\r \b\b­\r\n  ‚\r, \r\n
\b/\r\n\b\b, \b\b €\t\r \b\t\r
\r\b \t€­\b\b. ˜\b­\b \t  \r\n \b
\b \b\b: «€\r\t  \b\b
\r» (\t = 0.001) \b«\t\t/\n­\b\r \n
 ‚\r\t» (\t = 0.000). „\b\r €\t\r \t€
­\b\r ­\r \r   \b \r €\r\t\n 
 € \t€\r (\t\r\b\b € = 1.913),
Š\r €\b \t\r\r\r (\t\r\b € = 1.800), 
\r/\r\n\b\r €\b \r\r \r\r (\t\r\b
€ = 1.976).
2.5. \r\f \f\n\n \n\r\f \n\r\t \b,  
  \n\t\n\f  \r\f\b  \f \b
 \r \b \b\b \r\n \r \t€ \t
€­\b \b\b \b  €\r\r \r\t\t\b\b
€\b \n\r \r\r \t\b­\b \r\t \b
\b\b, \b\r «\b \n­\b\b \r\t\t\b\b
 \r\r \t\b\b» (\t = 0.000), «€\t\b\r
 ­\r \t\b» (\t = 0.016), ««\t\t\r/\n­\b\b
\t\b \r\t\t\b\b (\t = 0.000)», «\b
\t\b \t\r\b\t\r» (\t = 0.010), «\n­\b\b  
€\b\r\b \t\n \b\n€» (\t = 0.000) \b«\r\r\b\b
\b\b-\f\b­\r\b\b \b \t \b
\t\b ‚\b €\r\b» (\t = 0.005).
ˆ \r\b, ­\r €Š\r  \t€
\n\t€­\b, \r ­\r \b \n­\n  €\r\r \r
\t\t\b\b.
\n   \n­, \n €‚ \b€‚­
€\n\f\n­
 \t \t\n\r \b ‚\b \b\b,  
­ \b \r\t\t\b\b \r\r \b\b­ \n\t\r, €
\r €Š \b\r\t\r \t€­\b \t\r\b\b \r\t
\t\b\b \b\b\r \t€\r.
ˆ \t\r\n \t 87,9% \t€­\b \n­\n  \t\r
\b\b \r\t\t\b\b. • \t\b  \t\r€
\b \t\r\b\b \r\t\t\b\b  \n\r\r, 
\b\n/\r\n\b \t€­\b. Œ\b\r \b \r\r
\b,  \n€\t\b \r, \t\r Š\b \t\b€\t \b\b
\n­\b\r \b\t , \r\tŠ  \b\r
\t\r.
\n   \n­, \n €‚ \b‡
­ \b\n\t…€
 \t\r  \t\n\n  \b ‚\b \b
\b \t\r\r \t\r\t, \r\tŠ\r\r \n­\b
\r \t\n\r. ˜\r\n \t  , ­ \t€­\b\r
\n­\n  \r\n \b \b \r\r\b: «\t­\r
\b\t\r \b\t» (\t\r\b € = 2.612), « \b
 \b\t€\t\b \r \r\r\b\r (\t\r\b € =
2.633) \b«\b\t  \r\t \b\t \n€» (\t\r
\b € = 2.603).
Some characteristics of the way of life of workers
 4.
– \r\f\t\n\f \n \t
\f 
„  
\r\n‚ 
Ÿ\r \r\b (\n\t\r€\r\b\r €Š €‡\r \b\t \b)
ƒ\t­\r \b\t\r \b\t
ž\n\b\r
ƒ \r\t\r \b\t  \r\t \b\t \n€
™ \t\b\r\b
ƒ \b \b\t€\t\b \r \r\r\b\r
ˆ \b
ˆ\n: \r\b  2014. \n \b ƒ \n\n \t «‡ \n
\n „\n\f \t\f \r\f \t» (. VI1.1–2013–26)
‘\r Œ€\b‚ 4 , ­ \t€­\b\r 
­ \n­\n  \b \b\b, \b \t\r\r
\t\n\r. ƒ\t­\r \b\t\r \b\t \t\n\b \b\r  
\n  ­ (\t\r\b € = 2.612). ˆ\t\b\r­\r,
­ ­\r €Š \t‚\r \t€­\b 70% ­ \b21,2%
\b \b\t  \t­\r \b\t\r \b\t. ˆ\r\b 
\b\r\r\r, \t\b­\b \f \r\b \r , ­ \t
€­\b\r ­ \b\n €\r\b\b, \b \r
\b \b \t \b\r\r \t\r\r
 \n­\t\r\r\b. \t\r\n\r \f \b\t \t \n
\t€­\b \t \b \t\r­\r\b, \b\r  \r­\b\r
\t \t\r\t \b\b\tŠ\b  \t\r\t.
˜€­\b\r \r \t\b  \r\t\r \b\t\r \n
€  \t\r­\r\b \r \t€­\r . • \r \t\t
\t\r \b ‚\b \b\b \t€­\b (\t\r\b
€ = 2.633). 69,2% \t€­\b ­ \b21,9% \b \t\b
 \f\b \r\r\b.
ˆ\t\b \r, ­ \t\b \t\r\b\t\b\b \t
Š\r  \b\r\t ­\n  €\t  \b\b\r
 \t\b\r\n  \b \t\t\n\n\t\n \b€ 
\t\b\r\r \r‚\b \b  \b€\r\b\b 
\t\b\r\b \t€­\b. \t\r\n\r \t \t\r€
\b\r \b\t \b \n\n \n\t\b\r\b \t€­\b
\n\r\t\r  €\t \r \r\r\b\r.
ˆŠ\b ­\r  3,4% \t€­\b \b\n \r‚\b
 €\r\b\b, \t\r  57,8%  \b
\b\r \n\r \b\r\r. \t\r €\r\b, \n
\n\t\r \t\b­\b, \r€ \b\t 
€­ \b\r­ \t \t ‚\b
\b\b\n \t\b \n, ­ \t€­\b\r \t\r\n\r 
 \b\r  \r\r‚\b  \b \t\r , €\r 
\t. •  \n\nŠ\r Š\r\b\r \r
 \r\r\b \b. ‹\r\t €Š\n  \f\b­\r\n 
\n, \n \n  \t\r\n\r \b \r\r\b,
\t\r\b \n\n\t \t\b‚\b \b€\t\r \b\b \t\b
  \b \b\r\b, €\t \b \t
\r\b\r \r\n \r \r\r\b\r \b\t\b\r\b\b \t€­\b\b.
\b \t\b‚\b \t\b \r\n \t\b\r\b\b \t€­\b\b
\b\r \r  \n\r \b \t\b­ \r\b\r.
„
Ž€€ \t\r\n \b\r\b,   ­\b,
­ €\t \b\b \t€­\b \t\r \t \b 
\b\b, ­\b \t‚\r \t\b €\r\b
\b\n­\b \r\t\t\b\b \t \r\b \b€\b. „
‚\b-\b\b­\r \b \b€\t \b\b \t€­\b
\r\t\r \b\b  \n\b € \b\r \t\b
. ‰ \t\r\b \r­\b \t€­\r \b‚\b
\t\r €\t\r \b\b \t€­\b, \t€ \b \tŠ
\r , \t\r \t  \r ‚\b
\b\b \t€­\b. €\r \r\t\r\b\b \t\r\r \b\b,
 \r\r \t\b\r, 
\r\r \r   €\t \b\b, €\b\t\n\r
\tŠ\r \t\b\r \b\t­ \f\b\r.
€\t\r \b\b \t€­\b \rŠ\b \tŠ\r 
 \r\b  \b\r\r,  \b\t\b‚\r\r
\r. „ \t, \t  \n\t€­\b \b\r
\t\b‚\b\r \n\n\t\r ‚\r\b,  \r\t \b­\r
\r­, ­ \t\r \b \b \n­\b\b €\r
\r \b€\t\b\r \r\t\t\b\b. „\t\n
\t, €\r\r \n\b \b\b, \b ‚\b \b
 \b\t\b­\r\r

 \t\b\b­\r\b\r \b \n\r\t
\t€­\b \n \t\b\b \r\t\n €\t\n \b\b
\b\n­\b  \b‚\b \r\b. ˆ\t\r\b \b
‚\b €\t \b\b,  ­ \b\r \t\b, \n­\b\r
\t \b\t, \r\b\r ­\t\r\r\t\r \n\t\r€\r\b\r
 \b,  \b \r \r\r\b
\r, €   \r ­\r \t\r\r \t\b\r\b \t€­\b. ¡\b
\r€\n\n \t\b \r\t\r\r\r \r\t ‚\r  \t\b
\b \b \t€­\b \t\b\r \t\n, \r\b\b
\t\b‚\b\b \n\n\t\b ‚\r\b \b\t\r€\b
\b \t\r\r €\r, \rŠ\r \t\r\n\r
\r \r\b €\t \b\b \f\b \t€­\b\r \n €
\n  €\r.
„ ˆ\t\r\n «¦\t\b\t\b\r \n\n\t
\b\b  \t€­\b \tŠ\r  2015, c
\t\r  2020. », \t\b ˆ\r
\b\r \t\r\r\t-\b\b\t \t\b\r ¥1780/Q¿-Àg,
2015. \b\t\n\r \t\t\t\b  \t\b\b­\r\b\r 
\b, \r  \t\b\t\b\r \n\n\t \b\b, 70%
\t€­\b \b\t€\r\r \tŠ\r . ‘
\b\r\b  ‚\r\b \r\t\n  ­\r\t\r \r€\b
 \b\n\r\tŠ\r ‚\r‚\b\b \t\b\b \r\t\b
 \b\n \b\b \t€­\b \tŠ\r 
\t\b\r­\r\b\r \t\r\n\t \t\r \b­\b \t
\r \b, \b \t\r\t\b\b, \r €\r\r
, \t   \t\b‚\b \b€\r ‚\r.
‘ \f \t\b\r \b\r\r \b  
\r\b \r‚\b\r \t\r\n\t \b€ \r \b\r\r 
  \t\b\r \n­\t\r\r\b ‚\b €\r\r­\r
\b, \n\n\t \b\t\b \r\r\b, €\n\b \b
\t€­\b \r \t€­\r \t\r\r\b. ˆ\t  \r \t\b‚\b\b
\b\t\r\t\b\b  \t\b\b\t \n\b\b \n\b‚\b
   \b€\r\r\b \t\b‚\b\b, \r
\n \b\b \t\r \tŠ\r , \t\b‚\b\b
\n\n\t-\t\r\r \b\t\b \r\t\t\b\b.
º\r \f  \r\n   \r\t\n \b\n\b \t\n
\r\r\r Š\r\b \r\n \r  , \r
\r\r\b\r, \t\r\t\b\b\b \b\t€­\b\b.
‹\r€\b ­\b \n\b\b \t€ \t \r
\b \t\b\r‚\b\b \b\t \r\b \b
 \t€­\b, €\r \t\b\r\b \t€­\b,  \t\r
\n\b \n \n\n\t-\n ‚\r \b\t
 \b ‚\b €\r\r­\r\b, \n\rŠ\b \t\t
\r\n \t \b\r\t\r\r, \r\n \t€\b\b \n\r
 \b \b\b­\r \t\n, \b \b \b‚\b
\t \n\t \b \t€\b  \r\t\r \n\n\t, €
 \b \n€\b\b \b\b \n\n\t \r‚\b \b
\t \r\t\b \t€\b \b€  
\t\r\r \t\t \b Š\r\b \f \r\b\b
\n\n\t \r\t\t\b\b.
 \t‚\r\r \n\t\r\b \r\t\b‚\b\b, \b\n\t\b\b
‚\b\b \b\r\n\t \b\r\t‚\b\b \t€­\b\r \b  \r
€\r\r \n  \t. ˆ\f\n \t Š\r\b ­\r
\b \r\t\b \b\n\n\t-\n \b\b \r
­\r \n. ˜\rŠ\r\b\r  \t \r 
\r \t\b\r\t\b\r ‚\r\b \r\r\b \r\t\b\b
\b‚\b\b\b\b \t \b\t\b‚\b, \r\t\t\b\t\b\b
\t \r\n  \tŠ\r\r \b\f\t-\tŠ
\r\r , \r \n\b\r    \t\b
‚\b\b \t\r\b \b\r\n\t \n\t\r.
\r\f \n\t\n:
‹\n­ \t\r AO‹, ¦\n\r\r \b\b­\r\b\r \t€\r \t€\b \n\t\r \t\r\t\b\b,
\t\r\t\b\b \b\t\b \b\r\b‚\b\b \b\r\b ­ \r\t», \t \b \b\b. ¦ Œ\b ‰
—, †\b\n \b\b\b, B\ra A\r\b O€\r\r \n.
‹\n\r … Œ\n. P \t\rŠ\r\b „  \t€\b \r\t\b \r\b \tŠ\r ,  \f\t
\r\t\r\t€\b \r ¦\n\r \r\b. \r …\r\b ‰\r\b.
Œ ™ —, \t\b\b\r \r\b \t\r\be \t \r\bo \t\no \b\be, —c\b \n\b\r\t\b\r,.
ƒ\r  T\t\n\r – 2012\n.
™\t ­\r €\b\t \b\r\b‚\b, \r\t\r \b\t \b\r\b‚\b\b,
ˆ\r\b\r \r\t\b\b ‚\b\r\t €\r\r \b€\r \t\b­\r \r\r  – 2006\n.
Ž€\b\r € \t C\b\b\b, \f\b­\r \b\n‚\b €\r – 2008, 2010, 2012, 2014.
A\b \t€\b —\r  \r\b\b \f\b­\r \b\r\t‚\b\b. ‘\r\t\r \b\t\b
\b\b\r\b‚\b —\r.
in the epos of “Kitabi-Dede Korkut” and
in due course...
DOI: hp://dx.doi.org/10.20534/EJHSS-17-2-65-67
Sevinj Aliyeva,
leading scienti‰c worker of the Monitoring department of LinguisticsInstitute
of ANAS, Doctor of philosophy on philology, assistant professor
PhD on Philology, associate professor
Institute of Linguistics aer the name of Nasimi of NASA
E-mail: [email protected]
in due course have undergone to limited usage
Abstract:
e lexico-semantic analysis of a few compoundverbs which have taken placein the epos of “Kitabi-
Dede Korkut” and have undergone to limited usage were representedin the article. e author compares the borrowed
componentsin compoundverbs with the source language. e author denes the level of semantic deformation on
the basis of comparisons.
Keywords:
the epos of “Kitabi-Dede Korkut”, compoundverbs, limit of usage, semantic archaize.
‡\nƒ \n,
\b†\n \b \b\n € \t\n\n ˆ\n\b \r\r\n
,  \n\n\n\f \b,  
\n \n\n\n\f \b,  
ˆ\n\b \r\r\n \n\t.\n\t\n ‡
E-mail: [email protected]
 \t \t\t  «   \n\r»,
‚ \n\f\t\b\r
:
\r \t\r\r \r\b-\r\b­\r\b \b \r\t  
\f «ƒ\b\b \r ‘\r ƒ\t\n», \r\tŠ\b \n\r\b  \n‚\b\b. …\t \r
\b\r \r  \t  -\b­\b. ‹\r \f\b \r\b
\t \r \r\r \r\b­\r\b \r \t‚\b \f\b  .
 :
\f «ƒ\b \r ‘\r ƒ\t\n», \r , \t\b­\r\r \b\b\r,
\r\b­\r \t\b­.
ere areverbs among the compoundverbs of “Kitabi-
Dada Gorgud” which have revived until our days with seman
tic deformation. Let’s have a look at theverb
krm eylmk
whichis oen usedin KDG andin our classic literature:
Babas‹ aŒlad‹, ayd‹r:“OŒul, ocaŒ‹m‹issüz qoma,
krm eyl
varma!”–dedi
(KDQ) [7; 101].
e word
krm
whichis repeatedin the saga for
8timesin dierent morphological and syntactic arrange
ments comes from Arabian word [
kˆrˆmun
] whichis
formed from the babinnite form of [
kˆrˆmˆ
] meaning
“to have a mercy”. [
Kˆrˆmun
] in Arabian language means
“compassion, generosity, greatness” [11; 406]. e word
“K²rim” whichis usedin modern Azerbaijan language
(e.
Allah k™rimdir
”) and whichis one of the holy names
of Allah, as well as the personal names asIkram, Akram
have derived from namely thisverb stem. e word
krm
whichis givenin an archaic word statusin an explanatory
dictionary of Azerbaijan languageis stated to be adoptedin
the meanings of “Grace, mercy and kindness”, and conse
quently, theverb
krm eylmk
expresses the meanings
of “to have a mercy, to compassionate, to favor” [2; 685].
everbs k
rm etmk, krm eylmk,
as well as their
synonym
krm qlmaq
arevery oen usedin the saga
“Dastani-Ahmad Harami”:
Krm eyl
sözümd™n ç‹xma, ey dost,
B™ni h™sr™t oduna yaxma, ey dost.
(DAH)
Bu d™nli ki
krmlr qld
bana
Q‹z‹m‹verir™m Žükran™ ona
. (DAH)
In Fizuli lyrics also this component of Arabian originis
oen met:
Ya R™b,
krm et
ki, xarü zar™m,
D™rgah™ b™si ümidvar™m
(Fuzuli) [19; 15]
Saqi,
krm eyl
, cam g™zdir!
Durma, q™d™hi müdam g™zdir
! (Fuzuli) [19; 34]
InXIX century, thisverb was alsovery oen usedin the
works of S.
A.
Shirvani, M.
P.
Vagif, and M.
V.
Vidadi:
Çün g™libs™n,
krm t
, s™n d™xi bizd™n gtm™!
Görm™s™m g™r s™ni bir d™m, öl™r™m m™n, gtm™
(M.
P.
Vaqif) [22, 190]
S™n™
krm ylr
™zizü h™kim,
N™ ç™k™rs™n \fvfü \f™t™r, aŒlarsan
(M.
V.
Vidadi) [24, 89]
£hli
dünyay™ o k™s kim,
krm etdi
dövl™t,
K™r™mind™n s™n™ bir t™bi
Let’s have a look at the lexical and semantic peculiari
ties of theverb
in the epos of “Kitabi-Dede Korkut” and
in due course...
Ei
PaŽa, tevil yoluyla
ikrar ei
Ar‹nç: Genelkurmay tevil
yoluyla
ikrar ei
Returning to the functionalityissue of this com
poundverbin modern Azerbaijan language, we should add that
this borrowed component usedin dierent timesin “Dastani-
Ahmad Harami”, andin the works of Nasimi, S.
A.
Shirvani,
M.
A.
Sabir at present time has become completely archaic. It
also should be noted thatin our classic literature the word
iqrar
was used not only with the auxiliaryverbs
etmk/eylmk
, but
alsoin combination with theverbs “
olmaq, qlmaq
Gül™ndam d™xi söyl™m™di t™krar,
H™qiq™t dinm™m™klik
oluriqrar
. (DAH)
Qan‹ dilil™
iqrar eylyn
kim,
H™q™ yoxdur an‹n könlünd™inkar?
(Nasimi)
Münkiriniqrar‹ yoxdur h™qq™, ey sahibn™z™r,
H™qq™
iqrar eyl
s™n, münkird™niqrarist™m™!
XIX ²sr ²d²bi dilimizd²iqrar etm²k felinini±l²nm²
mövqeyin² n²z²r salaq:
AŒa Seyyid Hüseyn bir neç™il d™rs oxuyub,
Ediriqrar ki,
hala bilir™m Qurani
(S.
A.
Shirvani)
M™ni ™fv eyl™ ki, öz cürmüm™
iqrar etdim
Anlad‹m s™hvimi, iqrar‹m‹inkar etdim
(S.
A.
Shirvani)
In the last quote, S.
A.
Shirvaniin his poem addressed to
Sultanov, pleads guilty and asks for mercy.
G™l m™nim s™n’™timd™ sür’™timi
Görüb,
iqrar ql
m™har™timi
œ (M.
Á.Sabir)
hp://www.anl.az/el/s/mes_h2.pdf; 132)
In this sample M.
A.
Sabirinvites his collocutor to listen
to him and to confess his talent.
Ax‹rda plis naziri dedi:• Görünür, bu q‹z atas‹il™
from [
va: silun
] meaning “reached”, expresses the meanings
“to reach, to arrive, to join, to achieve” [3, 466].
Although the submied samples covers only a part of the
compoundverbs usedin KDG and underwent semantic limi
tation, it helps a lot to have anidea about general course of the
process of contraction of the meaning.
References:
Explanatory dictionary of Azerbaijan language, Ivolume,
– Baku,
– P. 744.
Explanatory dictionary of Azerbaijan language, IIvolume,
– Baku: East-West,
– P. 792.
Explanatory dictionary of Azerbaijan language, IVvolume,
– Baku: East-West,
– P. 712.
Babayev
A.
M.
Introduction to linguistics.
– Baku: Maarif,
– P. 504.
“Dastani-Ahm²d Harami”,
– Baku: East-West,
– P. 120.
Dede Korkut Kitab®, (Muharrem Ergin) Hisar, Kültür gönüllüleri,
– 2003, URL: hp://www.gunesdershanesi.com/
Kitabi-Dad² Gorqud (arrangement, transcription, simplied textvariant andintroduction.
S.
Alizada and F.
Zeynalov)– Baku:
Writer,
– P. 265.
Seyidaliyev
N.
F.
Dictionary of phraseology,
– Baku: “Ch®raq”,
– P. 272.
Valiyeva
N.
Phraseological dictionaryin Azerbaijan- English –Russian languages, Baku: Nurlan,
– P. 460.
Baranov Kh.
K.
Arabian –Russian dictionary, URL: hp://padaread.com/
BelkinV.
M.
Arabian –Russian dictionary,
– ‰.: «Russian language»,
– P. 528.
Song about how Uruz Bey-bey the son of Kazan-bey was captured//“e Book of Dada Gorgud “ (translation byV.
V.
Bar
told, compilers: V.
Zhirmunsky, A.
Kononov) URL: hp://www.vostlit.info/Texts/rus9/Korkut/frametext4.htm
Song about how Bisat killed Depe-goz//“e Book of Dada Gorgud” URL: hp://www.vostlit.info/Texts/rus9/Kor
kut/text8.phtml?id=745
Song about Bamsi-Beyrek, son of Kan-Bura”//“e Book of Dada Gorgud” URL: hp://www.vostlit.info/Texts/rus9/Kor
kut/text3.phtml?id=745
Turkish- Russian dictionary,
– ‰.: «Russian language»,
– P. 966.
DOI: hp://dx.doi.org/10.20534/EJHSS-17-2-68-69
Alimatova Nargis,
professor, PhDin Philosophy
E-mail: [email protected]
Kasimov Zafar,
head of department
in the works of Central Asian philosophers
Abstract
: is article describes the meaning of the term Hermeneutics and theimportance ofinterpretationin
scientic knowledge. It also demonstrates that whilein the 20
century philosophy Hermeneuticsis considered as a
separate branch associated with Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher and Wilhelm Dilthey, the Central Asian great
thinkersin 9–12
centuries discussed theoreticissues related to Hermeneutics and made considerable contribution
to the overall theory ofinterpretation. Abu Nasr Farabiy, Abu AliIbn Sina, Bernuniy, Mahmud Zamahshariy, Abu
Abdulloh Khorazmiy and other conductedimportant studiesin this area.
Keywords
: Hermeneutics, interpretation, Abu Nasr Farabiy, Abu AliIbn Sina, Bernuniy, Mahmud Zamahshariy,
Abu Abdulloh Khorazmiy.
In the modern philosophy, Hermeneuticsis studied as
a branch of philosophy that studiesissues of understanding,
explaining andinterpretation andis associated with Friedrich
Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher and Wilhelm Dilthey. As a meth
odological discipline, it oers a toolbox for eciently treating
problems of theinterpretation of human actions, texts and
other meaningful material.
e word “Hermeneutics” relates to Hermes, whoin an
cient Greek mythologyis a god of transitions and boundaries.
Hermeneuticsis the theory and methodology ofinterpreta
tion. Hermeneutics as the methodology ofinterpretationis
concerned with problems that arise when dealing with
meaningful human actions and the products of such actions,
mostimportantly texts. It started out as a theory of textinter
pretation but has been later broadened to questions of gen
eralinterpretation. It does not try to explain, but rather toin
terpret what was not understood or “decipher an unknown
language”.
e historical experience aests that where old concepts
and meanings are narratedin the context of a wider theory,
there one can reach more results compared to the past [1].
“Interpretation of a previously known old notionin a new
systemis the beginning of a new discovery”, said G.
Klaus [1,
P. 32].
Modern human knowledge encompasses several thou
sand years of development of understanding the world and
social reality. At the same time, such a development has
beeninterpreted dierently by dierent thinkers. e method
ofinterpretation created dierent trends and directions: ma
terialisticvsidealistic; dogmaticvs relativistic; objective or
subjective; etc. Irrespective ofits foundation, interpretation
allows the human knowledge and the worldview to cross over
from one level to another and also helps to solidify or deny
the already reached levels of knowledge. A worldview gets
polishedin this way as well.
us, shaping of a worldview from one form to another,
from one level to anotheris done through applying one or
another method ofinterpretation.
A successive continuous process ofinterpreting evolving
worldview and the realityis the source of dialectic thinking.
is source assures forward, spiral and constant development
of the dialectic thinking.
e great thinkers who livedin the Central Asia also made
animportant contribution to the study ofinterpretation. Abu
Nasr Farabiy, Abu AliIbn Sina, Bernuniy, Mahmud Zamah
shariy, Abu Abdulloh Khorazmiy and other conductedimpor
tant studiesin this area.
According to F.
Sulaymanova, thereis a study ofinter
pretation by Farabiyin his “Introduction to Logics”. In the
rst chapter, he discusses scientic terminology and scientic
categories usedin such terminology. Farabiy noted theimpor
tance of dierence between scientic categories and simple
explanations. Hisviewsin this area can be summarized as fol
lows:
First, Farabiy clearly realized that scientic terminologyis
anindependent area of study, which needs a particular aen
tion.
Second, he tried to show that scientic terminology
which explainsvarious scientic categories have historical and
objective meaning, and came close to understanding that they
in the works of Central Asian philosophers
(terminology) need to be free from subjective emotions and
theinuence of opinions. In his “Philosophical questions and
answers to them”, Farabiy wrote: “Understanding the gist of
things relates to knowing general rules and laws, these divis
ible general rules and laws hasits count and limits” [2, P. 28].
“If a human comes across things that he did not learn
about andif he/she acts based on main rules and general laws,
irrespective of what happens, he/she would have a rm basis
to appeal and reconsider to his/hers concepts”, he also said 4.
Along with being one of the most advanced expertsin
many disciplines, Farabiy also studied, commented on and
disseminated works by Aristotle. Forinstance, he wrote com
ments to Aristotle’s “First Analysis”, “Topics”, “Sophistic”,
“Categories”, “Ethics” and others.
Since Aristotle’s books were wrienin Syriac and Latin
languages and given the fact that corresponding scientic
terminology did not exist at the time, it was quite dicult
to understand Arabic translations of his books. As E.
Bertels
said: “One cannot argue that Farabiy’s works were not critical
or notindependent” [2, P. 28].
e works of Farabiy ensured we understand ancient sci
entic thought. As the French scholar E.
Renan stated, think
ers of the East not just provided comments on the meaning of
ancient books, but also explained them from their knowledge
and point ofview.
us, commentary did not just explainedviews of the
ancient scholars, but alsoilluminated about the worldview
andideas of the reviewers. So we can say that Farabiy did not
just popularized Aristotle’sideas, but his reviews can serve as
a good source material on Farabiy’s philosophicalvies as well.
Farabiy’s commentaries did not justinterpreted the material
isticviews of Aristotle, but also served as a tool to disseminate
Farabiy’s socio-politicalideas as well. He made great stridesin
the developments of science and philosophyin the East.
Ibn Sina wrote the following while reading Aristotle’s
“Metaphysics”: “I did not understand goals of the author. Even
aer readingit
forty times
, I did not quite understand him and
his goals. enI lost any hope and concluded that this book
wasincomprehensible” [3, P. 442]. One dayin bazaar, he sees
a book seller who was praising a book. Abu Ali sees thatit was
a book about “Metaphysics”, which he did not understand at
all. Aer the shopkeeper begs him to buy the book at a highly
discounted rate, Ibn Sina buysit. en aer coming home,
Abu Ali realizesit was a book by Farabiy, in which he com
mented on “Metaphysics” by Aristotle. “AsI kept readingit,
the meaning and goals of “Metaphysics” became clearer and
clearer to me”, writesIbn Sina [4, P. 12].
Ibn Sina’s philosophical treatise “Ash-Shifa” contains nine
books devoted to logic [4, P. 12]. One of these books “Al-
Ibarat” deals with theissue ofinterpretation. Init, Ibn Sian
links theissue ofinterpretation with the process of reection
as “true” and “false” through logic reasoning.
Abu Abdullah Khorazmiyin his “Matokh al-Ulum” book
touches upon on maers related to logic, where he aaches
specic aention tointerplay between words and expressions.
He says that words explain meaning of things fully and par
tially. Al Khorazmiy’s works studiedin great detail the usage
of words to achieve a meaning, which then leads to logic con
cepts [5, P. 83].
Mahmud Zamakhshariyin his dictionary “Asos-ul-
Balog’a” (e Foundation of Eloquence) raised the Arabic dic
tionaries to whole another level. He was also successfulinin
terpreting words. He aached real meaning to words with
multiple examples. He explains how to use wordsin certain
expressions, thusindicating multiple meanings of same words.
Zamakhshariy’s contributions, thus, alsoinclude studyingin
terrelations between meaning andinterpretation [6, P. 83].
We can conclude that, although Hermeneuticsis studied
as a philosophical trendin 20
century, its problems had been
studied by Central Asian scholars as far as backin 9–12cen
turies. While theinterpretation studiesin Europe were cen
tered aroundinterpreting religious scripture, in Central Asia
scholars lookedinto elements and practical application of the
theory ofinterpretation.
References:
Abdeev
R.
F. “Philosophy ofinformation civilization”,
– M.
– P. 31–32.
Farabiy
A.
N. “Philosophical questions and answers to them”,
– T.
– P. 28.
Bertels
E. “e history of Persian-Tajik literature”,
– M.
– P. 442. Abu AliIbn Sina, “Tib Qonunlari”,
– V. 1,
– T.
– P. 12.
Irisov
A. “HakimIbn Sino”,
– T.
– P. 83.
Khayrullaev
M., Bakhadirov
R., “Abu Abdullah al-Khorazmi”,
– T.
– P. 83.
Rustamov
A. “Mahmud Zamakhshariy”,
– T.
DOI: hp://dx.doi.org/10.20534/EJHSS-17-2-70-72
Atavullaev Mirkomil Axmadovich,
Senior scienti‰c researcher
National University of Uzbekistan
Faculty of social sciences
Department of “Nationalidea”
Tashkent, Uzbekistan
E-mail: [email protected]
Socionormative features and philosophical signiƒcance of legal
Abstract:
e article reveals the peculiarities of the legalvalue as a legal phenomenon, its social relations and
administrative functions.
Keywords:
rationalism, democracy, legalvalue, law, social life, irrational, socionormative, legal

dogmatism.
Emphasis on the formation of democraticvalues, human
rights protection of human rights and freedoms of liberal phi
losophy. Heis the modern democraticvalues of human free
dom, property, freedom of residence, freedom to elect and be
elected to the analysis of labor rights. Democracyis theideal,
theideal mechanism developed by the state constitution and
created by law. us, there are legalvalues of democracy and
constitutionalism. In our opinion, democracy and the rights
phenomenon plays animportant rolein communicating with
the process of modernization.
Legalvalue consists of two components: 1) the phenom
enon of human rights and 2) values. Lawyersinterpretedit as
a law on reality. At the same time, they do not reject the axi
ological approach. Itis so called «Axiological law». However,
as thevalue of the rights to represent the philosophical teach
ings of axiological research. erefore, human rights must be
transferred to the synthesis of phenomena of axiology.
Academician of the Academy of Sciences of Uzbeki
stan
J.
Tulenov supposed thatvalues of the natural, physical,
cultural, spiritual, social, political, national, regional and uni
versal, progressive and reactionary to provide moral forms. e
man calling all humanvalues, the highestvalue positioninto
account, he said. [1]. us, thevalue of hisinterests with
theinterests and aspirations of the subjective approachinto a
method of assessingvalues. erefore, G.
Rickert subjective
and psychological relations, human relations with the outside
world paid aention [2]. In this case legalvalues of this factor
has priority.
J.
Tulenov does not mention the legalvalue; he tries to
look at the socio-political system ofvalues. However, the
law because he was a unique phenomenonin the socio-po
liticalvalues that heis not, thenin a broad andinclude the
right to create the conditions necessary foritsimplementa
tion. Pricing marksin terms of features and functionality of
the legalvalue of particular realities.
Doctor of Philosophy and moralvalues Q.
Nazarov made
a classication of national and universal forms. [3]. It was also
around the side of thevalue of human behavior assessment,
he said. erefore, he wrote: «analyzing the structure of the
category and thevalues associated with the object and

values
theimportance and thevalue of students learning the subjectin
needis essential to pay special aention to the dialectic» [3].
Scientic researcher A.
Mirzayev was a lile dierent,
said: «According to the nature of the content andvalues, pro
gressive and reactionary types ofvalues according to the na
ture of their content and can not be supported by the majority,
acknowledged and recognizedinvalid regulating meansval
ues. us, the minority against humanity recognized by the
aempt to describe and understand thevalue that contradicts
the logic» [4]. isis not only the author’svalue as a positive
reality approach out there, thosevalues can not be consid
ered to be as ambivalent events. For example, trees and rich,
thereis a pool leakinginto the ground water, protecting rare
wild animals encounteredin remote forest ecologists, strove
to preserve, the modernization and support of scientic and
technical progress, especiallyin the merits of the great entre
preneurs to build a new city or business tryit. Object (sub
ject) in dierentvalues has separate types of progressive or
reactionary. In this respect, values, glorifying the Soviet legal
system, or as a remembrance of the Soviet constitution. Its
reactionary nature that when known systematic and criticized
western scientists said.
Professor
R.Ro’zieva, «values which express man’s re
lationship to the objectin the outside world, a reection of
the activity of the evaluationis subjective, as described. us,
as thevalue of subjective understanding of the product of
gnoseologic category experience, consciousness, knowledge,
comprehension on the trend. Due to the subject of human
beings cognitive aects assessment» [5]. In this regard the
scientistvalues and thevalues of the following features and
characters he writes:
First of all, human consciousness, perception and the
surrounding areas of social existence, «Me» their subjective
expression of the relationship;
Secondly, to understand the events and changesin the
life of the world gnoseologic experience with the product;
irdly, althoughitis based on the ontological self-sub
jective reality, cognitive, and aective phenomenon;
Fourth, they are as sustainable concepts of objective
events and developments followed her, but explain them

Socionormative features and philosophical signicance of legal
the form of relativelyindependent phenomenon, interpreta
tion, and ndsit to be rejected;
e h objectivevalues wealth and relativeindepen
dence of their social life, it can not be the basis ofindividual;
Sixth, the ontological basis of thevalues at the dialecti
cal connection with the publicisimportant to understand that
phenomenon;
Seventh, national and universalvalues, which combines
a dialectic can not forget that there are rational andirratio
nal aspects of real transcendence, only to nd their charac
tersIntegration leads to the solution of scientic problems
[5]. ese features and more characters to continue, you can
argue with some of them. For example, thevalues are always
an expression of the gnoseologic experience ofit, itis not only
subjective, but also objective being too. For example, the sun,
the land, the water, the mountains, the real, physical appear
ance, open- air by humanvalues. Human them helpful or
harmful, good or bad for thevalue of their self-government,
«absolutevalue» (N.
O.
Losskiy), because they do not re
quire an assessment of some of the people, but the condition
of the existence of human and social existence universal «ab
solutevalues».
Philosophical approach to axiological rights law, leading to
the phenomenon does not rejectit, but to him, individual, pri
vate and conrms theidentity of a dialectic between universality.
«Human, thisis a person, nor any other person shall be
subjected to arbitrary conditions, which can be comparedin
terms of the law of freedom of the sum of (complex)» [6]. A
philosophical point ofviewI.
Kant’s description of this sup
port, in which all human rights are recognized. However, the
law point ofview, he added. erefore, professors U.
Tojix
onov and A.
Saidov said lawis the mostimportant eight social
regulations, the obligatory publicity, certain processes, per
sonication, institutionalization, objectivity, that such signs
and representations [7]. In our opinion, their social regula
tions, the obligatory publicity, personication, institutional
ization characters can be called as socionormativein general.
So, socionormative because we are human specic phenom
ena mean that six universal characters.
How law and the legalvalue? Are the rules seriously?
Law science hasits subject of positive law. Positive human
rights ocial, obligatory for all countries, which have been
articial orientation, so to speak, providing the state as a body
combining living and working there. Positive rights positive
thingis thatitis a modern law science as «legal dogmatism»
is called, and all the laws, regulations, norms will be evaluated
through this dogmatism [8]. People oen encounterin their
daily lives, with everythingin place legal mechanismsinte
grated mode, with support for standards dogma or law (legal)
basis of dogmatism. So, the daily life of the positive law or legal
dogmatism legal regulator, the government, itis our social and
legal being. Legalvalue, we understand the philosophical and
legal sense of these things. e mostimportant activity of our
daily life and needs, actions will help create the conditions to
allow them a certain framework, which guarantees the

space
standards, rules, legal dogmatic rights. ere are legalvalues:
positive (positive); providing (forecast); institutionalization;
mobility and sustainability; rationality; authority.
e rights of the positive role that time, to create a posi
tiveinuence on the social development of people with their
basic functions. e lawis not just a formal agreement to act,
ultimately enhancing the social development of society, the
modernization of the service must be.
e eventis dicult to assess the positive or negative
events and training. In particular, the phenomenon of hu
man rights laws, norms and standardsin the evaluation of the
same peoplein societyis hard toimagine. Principles of normal
people awaken negative relationship. erefore, the law putin
the positive or negative assessment of the diculties faced
conicts. However, the lawis accepted as an axiom positive
feature of the current period, the amendments to the law, even
the most basic legal dogmatism. e constitution provides for
theintroduction of the new rulesis oen the case. isis on
the one hand, theimperfections of the law, on the other hand,
can be thought of as the eects of the dynamism of life. For ex
ample, the laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan every year, more
than a hundred changesin the periodicissues, such as «Halq
so`zi», «Narodnoe Slovo» newspaper. State law provides the
following methods of socionormativeinstitutions. ey are:
Firstly, common features are socionormative, legislative
and regulatory laws;
Secondly, socionormative documents and mechanisms
for theimplementation of social standards;
irdly, theinstitutions and their eective operation;
Fourth, cooperation with non-governmentalinstitu
tions and law and order, to ensure the necessary practical
measures;
Fih, the right of national and universalvalues which
serve as the formation of social outreach and legal-culturalin
stitutions. ese features also was noted by U.
Tojixonov and
A.
Saidov [9].
Legal dogmatism reects sustainable norms. Its primary
law, determine the general direction of the development of the
society Constitution. Other laws, regulations, socionormative
procedures change, sometimes they may appearin the new
edition. For example, «on the referendumin the Republic
of Uzbekistan» (August 30, 2001), the «Courts» (Decem
ber 14, 2000) adopted a new wording of the law of evidence.
However, the Republic of Uzbekistanin accordance with the
Constitution adopted on December 8, 1992, the originalis
storedin the form of minor additions. Today, itis a legal prac
tice. Developedin accordance with other laws. us, the legal
Dogmatism on the one hand, a stable base (basic principles
of the Constitution), and modiedin accordance with the
requirements of the new edition thereis a mobile unit that
can be taken.
Althoughitis full ofinternal contradictions of social life,
an expression of their struggle antagonists should know that,
in any society, diversity, pluralism has. is diversity, plural
ism, not antagonists ght, harmonious development, and

lead
to the development of harmonious social relations. e legal
stability and mobility are not conicting reality, they are the
priority of spiritual and moral climatein society and social de
velopment of harmonious relations. Sustainablevalues

reect
the changes and modernization of compliance. In this context
of sustainable humanvalues

in accordance with the dynam
ics of life can be aributed to the changing legal dogmatism
esteemed by the

society.
Socionormative essence of the right of people’s real-life
problems, and capable of making eective standards. So
S.
S.
Alekseev considered legal dogmatism, as “a source close
to the base as well as the specic reality has” [10].
e law on the formation of the law as socionorma
tivevalueis not limited by certain principles but must also
take place as a

value.
References:
Œ\n\r
£. Â\t\b\t  \b-ŒŠ\r:– À\r\b,
– 236€.
˜\b\r\t
ž.
‹\n\b \t\b\t\r \b\n\b \n‡\n\t\r– ‰; ˜\r\n€\b,
– 413.
‹\t Â. Â\t\b\t  \b.
– ŒŠ\r: ¦\n \t \b\b \b\b,
– 168€.
‰\b\t\r
….
¦\nÄ\t\b \b\b  \r\t\b Ä\t\b\t.
– ŒŠ\r: ŒŠ‘,
– 138€.
˜Å\b\r
˜.
£\b\b \b\bŠ\b: \b\b  \n\n\b\b Ä\t\b\t \nÆ\n\b\b.
– ŒŠ\r: ¦   È\nÄ\nÄ
\b.,
– 2011.
– 160€
ƒ
„­\b\r\b Š\r\b .
– Œ.4.
– § 2.
– ‰: ‰‡;– 1965.
– 532.
Œ\b
., „\b
….
‘  È\nÄ\nÄ \t\b\b– ŒŠ\r: …,
– 336€.
„\b
….
—.
†\n\f ƒ\b  \b-È\nÄ\nÄ \r\t\b  \b  \t\b\t\n\r‚\b. ŒÅ\b\t\b  Ä \bŠ
– Š\t\b– ŒŠ\r: † È\nÄ\nÄ\t\b ˜\r\n€\b ‰\b\b ‰\t\b,
– 320€.
Œ\b
., „\b
….
‘  È\nÄ\nÄ \t\b\b. 1
\b.
– ŒŠ\r: …,
– 336. €.
…\r\r\r.
„.„ ˆ\t: €\n-\r\t\b- \b \b: Ž \r \b\r\b– ‰ “„\n”,
712.
DOI: hp://dx.doi.org/10.20534/EJHSS-17-2-72-74
Baranov GennadiyVladimirovitch,
Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation,
Financial University
Doctor of Philosophical Science (Advanced Doctor), Professor,
›rofessor of «Social science»
E-mail: [email protected]
Speciƒcs of philosophical paradigms of materialism and
Absract:
specics of content of philosophical knowledge by criterion of belonging to a paradigm areinvestigated;
essential signs of alternative paradigms of philosophy are characterized; paradigms of materialism andidealism are
estimated at philosophies byinformation factor ofimprovement of human activity.
Keywords:
philosophy; philosophy problems; materialism paradigm; idealism paradigm; human activity.
ž \n \n\t\n\n,
‚\n \b\n\n \n ¡\n ›‚,
 \n\n\f \b, ,
  «€„† \b\n»,
E-mail: [email protected]
\f\n \t\n  \r\t 

: \b\r\n\r \r‚\b \b \r\t\b \b  \b \t\b\r\t\b  \t\b\r\b
\t\b\r; \t\r\t\b\n  \n\r\r\r \t\b\b \r\t\b \t\b \b \b\b; \t\b
\r\t\b\b \b\b\r\b  \b \b\b ‚\r\b  \b \t‚\b \t \r\tŠ\r\b
­\r\r­\r \r\r\b.
 :
\b \b; \t€\r \b \b\b; \t\b \r\t\b\b; \t\b \b\r\b;
­\r\r­\r
\r\r.
Specics of philosophical paradigms of materialism and
Ž€\r\r \r€\b \n\n \b
 \b \t\r \b\r\b\b \n
\t€\r \r\t ­\r\r­\r \r\r\b \r¨
\t\b\t\r­\b\b \b\b\b­\r \r\b\r \t
\b€\r\r  €\b. ˆ\r\b  \t, \t
€\r \b \b\b \f \b \t‚\b\r \r
\r \t\b\t\r­\b \r\n \b \b\b\r\b, \t\r
\r€\b \t\r\r  \n\r\r\b \b\r\tŠ\r
\b \b\t\b­\r\b \b\n \r€\b \b
­\r\r­\r \r\r\b. ˆ\t€\r \t  \r
\b \n\r\b \t €\r, \r‚\b \b­\r\b
\t\r\r \r \b\r €\b ­\r\r \b€\r
 [1, 6; 2].
ˆ \r\b  \t, \r \b \b \t€\r
\t\b\r\t\b  €‡\r \b\r\b   \r\r\r\r
\r\b  (\b): \b­\r, \r\b­\r
, \b\b­\r, \r\b­\r, \n\t \b ,
\t\b­\r, ‚\b, \t\r\b­\r, \r
\b\b­\r, \b -\b\t\b­\r [2, 49–50]. ¦\b
 \b\r \n\b, \t \b\r\b­\r\b \b
\b\r\n   \b \b \b \t€\r 
  \t\n\n\t\n \t\r\r \r‚\b\b\b\t \n­
\b \b\b \b \b \b\b  \b\b­\r ­\b \b \t
‚\b \n\n\t ­\r\r­\r [3; 4].
‰\r \t€\r \b \b\b \t\n\b\t\n\r \t\b
\r\t\b  \b  \t\b. ¦\b  \t\b,
\b\b \t\b \b \b\b É \b\r \t \b,
\r \b‚\r \b\r\b, \t\b \r‚\b\b\b
\b \b\b \b\t\r\b\n\r \r\b \b\r\r\r
\b\t\b­\r\b \b\r \r\t\b  \b\b \b,
\n\t\r\b \b\r\r\r \t\r€\t\b €‡\r [5,
¦\b \b\r \t\b \r\t\b\b \b\b\r\b
 \b\r\tŠ\r\n  \r\t\b \b\r\b
\b \b\b \n\n\t\r ­\r\r­\r \n  8–6.
 \f\t \b\r. Ž \r \r‚\b \b\b
 \t\b \b\r\b\r €‡\r €\b
\t\b\r\t\b  \t\r\r \b­\r €\t\b \b
­\b \t\t€\r (€\r) \b\r.
‰\r\t\b\b, \b\b \r\t\b\b\b­\r\r \b \r
\b\t\t\r\b\r \b  \t\b, \t
\r \t€\r \b\r\n  \t\b\r\r\b\r \b\r \r\t
\b­\b \r\r\r €\b  \b\r €\b\r.
Ž\r \b \t\b \r\t\b\b: \r\t\b,
\r\r, \t\b\t, \t\b­\b, , \n \b\b\r.
Œ\r\t\r\b\b \t\b \r\t\b\b: ‘\r\t\b, •\b\n\t,
ž€, ƒ.
ž\r\r‚\b, £.
›\r\t\b, ….
….
™,
ž.
§\r\tŠ\r\b, ¦.
•\r, ƒ.
‰\t \b\b\r.
ˆ\r\t\b­\r \n‚\b\b \t\b \r\t\b\b \n
\n\t\r ­\r\r­\r:
\t\b \r\t\b\b \r \b \t‚\b\n 
\n \r\r ‚\b\b\b‚\b\b €\r, \t
\t\b\t\b\r \n, \r\b, \t\b, \b\b­\r\b\r
\t \b€ \b­\b, \r\t\b [7]; \r\t\b\b
\r\b­\r  \n\b \n\n\t\r €\r

\r\b\b­ \n; \r\t\b\b €\r\r­\b\r \t\b\t
\b\r \t\r\b\b­\r \b\t\t\r\b \b­\b [8].
†\r\b, \b\b \b\r\b\b­\r\r \b \r \b
\t\t\r\b\r \b  \t\b, \t \r
\t€\r \b\r\n  \t\b\r\r\b\r \b\r \r\t\b­
\b \b\r €\b  \r\r\r €\b\r. Œ
 \b\r \b\r\b \t\b\t\r­\b \b\r\n \n
­\r\r, \t\t€­\b\b \t\b \b\r\b \t\r
  ­\b\r\r \t\b\r ‚\r‚\b\b \b­\r\b
\r \b\b\r \b\b­\r \r.
‰\r \t\b ‚\r‚\b \b\r\b \t\b\r\t\b 
­\r \b\r €\b \t\t\r\r  \t\b :
€‡\r\b \b\r\b, \n€‡\r\b \b\r\b, \t\r\b\b
 \b\r\b, \b\b \t\r\b\b \b \b \r¨  \r
\b \r\t\b. Ž\r \b: \b\t \t\n,
\b\t , € , €  \b\r, \n, \nŠ, «©»,
› \b\b­\r [9; 10].
Ž€‡\r\b \b\r\b \b  \t\b,
\t \r \t€\r \b\r\n  \t\b\r\r\b\r \b
\r \r\t\b­\b Š\r \r\r\r \b\r
€\b  \r\r\r \b\b \t‚\b €\b\r €‡
\r \t\b\t \b\b\b ­\r\r. Œ\r\t\r\b\b \t\b
€‡\r\b \b\r\b ˆ, …\t\b\r, ¦.
š\r
\b, ž.
ž\r\r, ….
š\r\n\f\t, ƒ.
ˆ\r\t.
„\n€‡\r\b \b\r\b \b  \t\b,
\t \r \t€\r \b\r\n  \t\b\r\r\b\r \b
\r \r\t\b­\b \b\b\b\n ­\r\r­\r \b\r
 €\b  \r\r\r €\b\r. Œ\r\t\r\b\b 
\t\b \n€‡\r\b \b\r\b „\r •\b\t\b, ‘.
¢, ‘.
™\r\t\b, †.
ƒ, ž.
¦\b\r, ‰.
—\r\r\t \b\b\r.
˜\r\b\b \b\r\b \b  \t\b,
\t \r \t€\r \b\r\n  \t\b\r\r\b\r \b
\r \r\t\b­\b \r\t‡\r\r\r \r\r\tŠ\r
 \t‚\r\r \b\r €\b  \r\r\r
\b\b\r €\b\r ­\r\r \b€‡\r \t\b\t. Œ\r\t\r
\b\b Œ\r\t\n\b, …\n\b …\t\r\b, …\b‚\r, ‰
\b, ¦ …\b\b, „.
™\n, ˆ.
Œ\b\b \b\b\r.
¦\n‚\b\b \t\b \b\r\b \n\n\t\r ­\r\r­\r
:
\b\r\b \r\t\r\b­\r  ‚\r 
 \n\n\t \t\r\b\b, \t, \b\n \b \b
\r €\r\r­\b ‚\r \t\r­\r\b \b\t
\r\b [11]; \b\r\b \b\t\b\b \n\n\t \n\r
\b\r\b­\r \b \t‚\b  \t\b‚\b
€\r; \b\r\b €\t ­\b \b
\t\b\b \b\n\r \b €\n\r
\t\b\b  \t­\r\b €\r ­\r\r \b 
\r\b\r \b\b\b­\r  €\b [12].
 \n\n\t\r ­\r\r­\r \t\b \r\t\b\b
\b\b\r\b \n‚\b\b\t\n  \t\b\r\t\b  \b\r
\b. ƒ \b\b\t\t\r­\r\b \r\t\b 
\b\b\b \b‚\b\n   \b \t‚\b 
\t \r\tŠ\r\b \t €\b, \r
 \t\r€\t\b\r €\r\r­  €\b €‡\r
\t\r€\r\b ­\r\r
\r\f \n\t\n:
™\t
ž.
.
¦\b \b \n\n\t\r.
– Ž: ŽžŒ,
– 280.
™\t
ž.
.
ˆ\t€\r \r\t\b \b \b\b//ž\n\b\t\b\n.
– „.49–50.
™\t
ž.
.
ˆ\t\b\n  \b \b\b: ­ 1.
– Ž: ŽžŒ,
– Œ.
– § 1.
– 372.
™\t
ž.
.
ˆ\t\b\n  \b \b\b: ­ 2.
– Ž: ŽžŒ,
– Œ.
– § 2.
– 360.
™\t
ž.
.
™\t
ž.
.
ˆ\t\b \r\t\b\b \b\b\r\b  \b \b\b//\r\b \t\r\r \n\b.
– 2016.
РΠ7.
– „.134–137.
™\t
ž.
.
„\r‚\b \b \t\b \r\t\b\b \b\b\r\b  \b \b\b//ž\n\b\t\b\n.
– ¥2.
– „.4–5.
™\t
ž.
.
¦\n‚\b\b \b \b\b \n\n\t\r €\b\b\t\n \r ­\r\r­\r//‰\r\n\t \n­-
\b\r\r\b \n\t.
– „.36–38.
™\t
ž.
.
¦\t \b \b\b \b\b\t\t\r\b €\b\b ­\r\r//\r\b \t\r\r \n\b.
– ¥6.
Π4.
– „.55–58.
™\t
ž.
.
ˆ\t€\r €\b  \b \b\b.
– ‰ \r,
– 238.
™\t
ž.
.
¦\b \b \b.
– ‰ \r,
– 266.
™\t
ž.
.
º\r \n\n\t\r//\r\b \t\r\r \n\b \b€\t\b.
РΠ5.
– „.39–41.
™\t
ž.
.
„\r‚\b \b €\b ­\r\r//†\r\t\b \n.
– „.96–98.
™\t
ž.
.
§\r\r  \t€\r  \b \b\b//‰\r\n\t \n­-\b\r\r\b \n\t.
– 2016.
– (47).
– 2016.
– „.83–85.
DOI: hp://dx.doi.org/10.20534/EJHSS-17-2-74-76
Baranov GennadiyVladimirovitch,
Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation,
Financial University
Doctor of Philosophical Science (Advanced Doctor), Professor,
›rofessor of «Social science»
E-mail: [email protected]
Abstract
: specics of public relationsininformation culture of belief are characterized; functions of public rela
tions speak by criterion of activity of optimization of socialinteractions on the basis ofideals ofimplementation of
human rights and other actors of mankind.
Keywords
: culture; mankindideals; functions of public relations; humanization of socialinteractions.
ž \n \n\t\n\n,
‚\n \b\n\n \n ¡\n ›‚,
 \n\n\f \b, ,
  «€„† \b\n»,
E-mail: [email protected]
\f\n \n\f \r  
 \r\r\b‚
:
\t\r\t\b\n\r \r‚\b \b \b €\r\r  \b \t‚\b \n\n\t\r \n€\r\r\b;
\n‚\b\b \b €\r\r  €‡  \t\b\r\t\b  \r\r\b \b\b‚\b\b ‚\b
\b\r\b \r \b\r \n\r\r\b \t ­\r\r \b\b \t ­\r\r­\r.
 :
\n\n\t; \b\r ­\r\r­\r; \n‚\b\b \b €\r\r ; \n\b‚\b
‚\b
\b\r\b.
ˆ\t€\r\b \b €\r\r  \t\b­
 \t\b \n€‡\r (\t) €\r,
 ­\b\r \t \b, \t\n €\r\r\b \b€
\r\r €‡\r\b\r\b, \n\b\b\t\n\r \b\r
\t\b \n\n\t \b€\t\r

\r\r\b
90
  20\r  \r\b\r \t €\r\r­\r\b
\t ­\r\r \n\b €\b‚\b\b \b\r\r
 \r\t\b‚\b\b €\r\r \b\b \t\b.
ˆ \t\b\r\t\b \t\b Ž\t\b‚\b\r Ž€‡\r\b
¨ ‹‚\b (ŽŽ‹) \n\r €\b

\b\r
Specics of functions of the communication system with the public
«‰\r\n\t €\b \t ­\r\r» \n\t
\b\b\b\n \t €\r €\n  \r\r\t
\r\t\b \t \t \t\r\r\r\b\r \b
\r €\r­\r\r­\r\b \t \b\r\b\b­ ­\r\r.
\r \r\t «\r€\r \r\t‚\b\b \t ­\r\r»
\n\r\t\r: «\r  \b \t  €\b \b\t
\b ¨ \b\r \b\t. Ž\b \r\r \t
\n \b\r  \b \n Š\r\b\b \t\n
\t\n \n\r €\t» [1]. „ \r\t \n\r
ŽŽ‹ «‰\r\n\t  \t\b \b\b
\b­\r\b \t», «‰\r\n\t  €\f\b
­\r\b, ‚\b \b\n\n\t \t» \b­\r
 \t  \r\t\b­\r \n\r\b: «\r \t
\b\r  \t \t\r\r\r\b\r. \b\n \f \t \b
€ \n\b   \b\b­\r\b \n \b
€ €\r\r­\b  ¨ \f\b­\r\r, ‚\b\r
\b\n\n\t\r \t\b\b\r» [1].
 \n\n\t\r \n\t ­\r\r­\r  \b\b\r
«„\b €\r\r » \n‚\b\b\t\n\r ­\b
\r ­\r\b \r\t\r\b 19\r. ‹\b \r
 \t\r ­\r\b Public Relations (\t\r\b\b
˜R) \b\r \b €\r\r  € \b
1807. ˆ\t\r\b\r „š…
Œ.
‘\r \r\t (1743–1826)
­\r\b\b \b \t‚\b \b\b­\r \r\r\b
\b  \r\t\b \r\n \t\n\b €\r\r\b
„š… \n\b \r\t\b \r\t\b\b (\r\b) \r\t
\b­\r \b\b­\r \t\r\b \n\t\r [2; 3, 4].
 \b\b­\r \n\n\t\r „š… \r\t\b \r\r
\b ˆ\t\r\b\r „š… •\t  ‘\r (1767–1845)
1829–1833. €  \t \r\b \t\r-\r\t\r\t
ˆ\t\r\b\r „š…  ‚\r  \b\r 
\b\r \b\b \r\r\b Š\r 
\b‚ „š….
‘\b\r\b \n‚\b\b \t\r-\r\t\r\t
„š… \b: \b\b\r \t\b\b \t „š…;
\b\r \b\b € €\b \b\t\r\b \t
\b „š…. \n\n\t\r „š… \r\t\b 30
. XIX\r
\b\r Public Relations \b\r €\r\r-\b\b­\r\r
\t\b\b­\r\r ­\r\b\r «\r\b \t\b €\r €».
 \n\b €\b‚\b\b ­\r\r­\r \t\r\b‚\b
\t€\r \t­ \f\b\b \r €\r \f \r
\b \t\b\r\r\b \r \b\b \b\n€\r\r\b 
‚\b \b\r\b \n\t \b‚\b \t\n
[4], ‚\b \r\r \r\r\b \t\b‚\b\b
[5] \b\t €\r \n\t\r [6]. \n\b
 21., \r\b  \r‚\b\b, \r \r\t\b\r
\r\r\b \t€\b \b\r «\b €\r\r
 » \b \b\b \f \r\b \n\b\b
\r\b, \r\b €\r\b, €\r \r\b\b \b
\b\r\b \b\b\b \r \b\r €\r\r
 €\b ­\r\r,  ­\b\r \r\b\b \b\b\b
\b\b\r\b\b [7; 8,

Ž\r ­\r\b  \b\b « ý‚\b»:
 \b , \r\t\r\b\r \t\n\b 
\b «\b\r\b\r», «\t\r\b\r»; \t, ­\r
\b\r \n\r\b €‡\r; €\b \r\r\b
\b\b\b \b\b  ‚\b \t\n \b€\r
\t\r\r¨ \b\r\r €\r\r \b(\b\b) \b­
\b\b [9, 36].
„\r‚\b\b\b  \t\b­\r \t\n\b\t\b
\n‚\b \b €\r\r . ‹\t\b\r\t, 
\b \n‚\b\b \t\b : \b\b­\r \n‚\b
\b \b\b \b\b\b, \t‚\r\n\t \b\r\b \t\n
 €\r\r\b; \n\b\b \n\r\b\r
\b\r\t\b\r \n\t\b Š\r\b \r\n \t\b
‚\b\r \b\t\n\b €\r\r\b; \t\t\r\b\t\n 
\n‚\b \n­\r\b\r («\b \b‚\b») \f\r\r
\r\r\b \t\b‚\b\b (\t) \b\n‚\b \b
\r\b \r\b \t\b\t\r­\b \t\r€
\t\n €\r\r\b \b\t\b‚\b\b; \b\t\b
\n‚\b \b\r\b­\r\b \t \b, \r\b,
Š\r\b \b\r\r\b \n\t\b \b\r \t\b‚\b\b [10].
Œ\r\t\r\b \b\t\b \b €\r\r  \b„š…
•\t ™\r\t\r \r\b \t\b €\t\r \r \n
‚\b\b \b\r \b €\r\r  \b \t\b\t,
\n€\r (\r), €‡\r\b  \r [10].
„\r‚\b\b \b €\r\r  \t\r\b\n 
‚\r\r \t\b\r\t\b\b \t \t \b­\r\r \b
\n\b \n \r ‚\b \b\r\b
\n\n\t\r ­\r\r­\r [11]. ˆ\t\b\t\r­\b \t\r\r
\b\b \f ‚\b\b \n€‡\r €\r, € \b 
\b \b, \b\b\b\t\n  \b\r \b
€\r\r  \t\b\r\r\b\r ‚\r \t\r
\b \t‚\b \n\n\t \n€\r\r\b.
ˆ \t\b\r\t\b  \t\r\b‚\b\b ‚\r \r\t\b
\r\r\b \t\b‚\b\b  (€) \n
‚\b \b\r \b €\r\r  €\r\r­\r\b\r
‚\b \b\r\b \t\r\b \t\r\b‚\b\b €\r
­\r\r­\r\b \b\r \n\b, \t\r\b\b, €\t,
\b\b, \t‚\b\b, \t\b\b \b\b, €
 \b  \n\n\t\r ­\r\r­\r [12].
† \t‚\b \n\n\t \n€\r\r\b, 
\b\r, \n\r\r \b\r «\b
\n\b ­\r\r­\r \r\r\b» \t\r \b
\n\b \b\r\t \b \r\t\b \b\b
\b\b \t\n €\r\r\b, \b\r\n \b
\r‚\b\b\b\t\b \t\b €\r. \n\b
\t\b\t\r­\b €\b\n \r \n\n\t \b\r \b
€\r\r    \n \t\b\t\b \b
\b\b­\r \b\t\t\r\b ­\r\r, \r \t\r
  \n€\r\r\b\r \n\r\r\b\b \b\r \t\r\b\b,
\t\b\b, \n\b \r\t\b \n\b \b\n
\b\b
­\r\r.
\r\f \n\t\n:
‰\r\n\t €\b \t ­\r\r. ‘\n\r ŽŽ‹. [•\r\t \t\r\n\t]. ˜\r\b \n: URL:
hp://www.un.org/ru/documents
„\b €\r\r   ‚\b \b\r\r\t\b/ˆ \t\r. .
….
…­, ›.
.
\b.
– „ˆ€.: ˜\r­,
– 336.[•\r\t \t\r\n\t]. ˜\r\b \n: URL: hp://pr-engineering.narod.ru
™\t
ž.
.
„\b €\r\r  \t \b.
– Ž: †- Ž žŒ,
– 112.
™\t
ž.
.
¦\b \b \b\b\b, \n\t \b\t: \t\b\n.
– Ž: †- Ž žŒ,
– 260.
…
¢.
†., ™\t
ž.
.
ž€\r \r \t\b‚\b\b ‚\b \r\r\b \t\b‚\b\b
//\r\b „\b€…‘†.
– „.143–146.
™\t
ž.
.
ƒ‚\r‚\b ‚\b \r\r\b \t €\r\r ˜\b\b//‰\r\n\t \n­-
\b\r\r\b \n\t.
– „.64–65.
™\t
ž.
.
¦\n‚\b\b \b €\r\r //†\r\t\b \n.
– „.43–45.
™\t
ž.
.
„\b €\r\r  \n\n\t\r €\r//\r\b \t\r\r \n\b.
– ¥8.
РΠ4.
„.135–137.
™\t
ž.
.
¦\n‚\b\b \b \b\b \n\n\t\r €\b\b\t\n \r ­\r\r­\r//‰\r\n\t \n­-
\b\r\r\b \n\t.
– „.36–38.
ƒ\t\r
•.
., …€\t
˜.
„\b €\r\r . –‰,
– 272.
™\t
ž.
.
¦\t \b \b\b \b\b\t\t\r\b €\b\b ­\r\r//\r\b \t\r\r \n\b.
– ¥6.
Π4.
– „.55–58.
™\t
ž.
.
º\r \n\n\t\r//\r\b \t\r\r \n\b \b€\t\b.
РΠ5.
– „.39–41.
DOI: hp://dx.doi.org/10.20534/EJHSS-17-2-76-77
Mamatyusupov Bunyodbek Ulubekovich
Senior scienti‰c researcher
applicant
National University of Uzbekistan, Tashkent
mail: [email protected]
Moral
in spiritual perfection of person
Abstract.
is article analyzes the moralvalues, and their properties, as well as their rolein the spiritual develop
ment of theindividual
Keywords:
e moral, value, identity, individual, spirituality, ethics, education.
­\t…\b ž\b¤„ ¢\b¥„\n
‡\n \b \b\n
\n
 \n \b\n\n ¢\r„\n, 
mail: [email protected]
„\t\b \f\r 
 \r 
 \r \t­\r
.
 \r \t\b \b \t ‚\r\r, \b\b , \r \b \t
\n \t\b\b\b \b­\b.
 :
\t, ‚\r, \b­, \b\b\b, \n, \f\b,

\b\b.
‰\t  \b \b\b \n \t\b\b
­\r\r, \b\r\r \r\r \r \t\b\b\b €\r, \t\b
€\t\r\r\b\b \t\b  \n ­\r, \n
\r\r\b\r \b \r. ‰\t \r \t\b\t\r \r
‚\b-\b\t\b­\r\b \r\b\r. ‰\t \b\t\r
Š\r\b ­\b \t  \r,  ­\r
\r ­ \t\b\t  ‚\b\b­\r\b \b\b\b.
\b \t Š\r\b ­\r\r \t
\b €\r \b    ­ ‚\b
 €\b. ‰\t  ‚\b\r \r\b\r ­\b
\r \t\b\t\n \b, \n\t \b \b\t \b
\b\b ­\r\r \b€\r. †\r \f\n, \t\r\r
\r \f, \b\b­\r\b \t\r\b, €\r, \b\r

\n\t\r\b\r \n\t  \t\r\r\r\r 
\t\r \t [1, 64].
Œ , \t \b\r\r \b\t\b­\r\n , ‚\b\n ,
‚\b\n  \b€\r­\r\r­\r\b\r , \t\b \b\r
\b\b \r€\b \b\r . †\t\b­\r\b
\b \b\r\b \t\b \b\t ‚\r\r \b
\r\r\n\r, ­  \t, ‚\b \b\f \r\t\r
 \b\n­\r\b  \t \t\b, €\b  \t
\t\r\b\b \b\n­ (\r\b) \n­\r\b. \f €
\b \b\r\b \b\b \r \r\t\b \b
«•\b»  \n \b\r  \b.
ƒ\t\r , €Š\b\r \b\r\t\n\t \f\b\r \t\r­
\r \r\t\b «\t». ‘ \r\t\b \r\t\r €

\r\r
Moral
in spiritual perfection of person
€\t \t\b\b\b \b\r\b. ˆ\t\b \f \b\r
«mores» \b\t\r­\r\r «ethos» \b\r\r \b\r ­\r\b\r.
‘\t\r\r\t\b\b \b º\b‚\r\t €\b «\t\b»
\t\b\n «\t\r ­\r» \b\r \f\n ­\r\b\r
\n­ €\t. \t\r­ \b Š\r \n\n\t\r, \t\r­\b,
\n­ \b\n\r\r \b\r\t\n\t\r \r\t\b «Ä»
\b\r\r \t€\b \t\r ­ \b \r\r\b\r, \b
\b\r ­\r\r. ‹\r\t , ­  \r\t\b \t
\t \r -\t\n, \b ­\r\b\r, \n \r
\r\b\r «\t»  \n\b, \t
\t\r\b\b\r \b\n­\r (\r) \n­\r\b\r, \b \n
\n \b\f ‚\b\n \t\b\b  \r ­\r\r­\r.
†\r\b\r \n\b \t ‚\r\r, \b \b \b
‚\b , \r\t\n  ­\r\t\r, \t\n\r\r  \n­-\r
\t\r\b­\r\b\r  \b «‰\t». \b\r\r \n
 ‚\r\r €\b  \r \r\t\b \b\n­\r\b
\t\b. ­\b, \t\r\r\r\b\r \b «\t»
\t€ £.
Œ\n\r \r ­\r\r «\r \t\r
\r\r \r\r\b, \t, \t\b \b\t\b‚\b» [2, 264],
\n…€\n š\r\t \t\r\r\r  «\n ‚\b
 €\t‚ \r\b  €\r, \f\b, \b\t\b\b»
[3, 4]. ˜\b\b\r \b\r\r\b: ….
ž\n\r \b˜.
…\t\r
\b \t€ \t\b \b\r¨ \n\b  \b\r \b
: «1) \t\r \b\r\r   \r; 2) \t\r
\r\b\r Š\r\n ­ ; 3) € \t\b\b ­\r\r
€\r\r; 4) € \t\b\b, €\r\t \n
\r\b; 5) \n, € €\t\nŠ Š\r\b 
  ; 6) € \b; 7) € \b\r
\b\b \r  \t\b \t\b» [4, 26]. ….
˜\n\b
\r \t\r\r\r\b\r \t\b , « \t \n\t­\r\b \r
\r\b ­\r\r \b‚\b Š\r\b \r \r\b
\t\r€\b ‚\r\r,  \b  \b\t
\r ‚\r\b, \r \b\b\b\n, \n€‡\r\b,
€\r\t \b\n\r\b» [5, 88].
š\b\t \b\r, ­ \b €\r \r\r ­\r
 \t\r\b \r €\n\n\r\r €\r \n\t\r\r\b \b \t
 ‚\r\r. ‰\t\r ‚\r\b ‚\b ­\b
\r, ­ \b, \r\t\n  ­\r\t\r, \t  €\b\r \b\r\t\r
 \b­\b \b€\r. Œ , €\r \b­\b \r€\r
€\r, \b­ €\r €\r, \n \t ‚\r
\r \r \b \t\r\r\b €\r \b\b­\b.
‰\t\r ‚\r\b \t\n\r :
\n\r\b\r ­\r\r \t\b­ ‚\r\b \b‚\r 
Š\r\b\b ‚\b \t‚\r;
\b\r ­\r\r , ­ \t‚\b \r\t
\r \r ‚\r\r \r \b ­\b\r \t
\r ‚\r\b;
\b\r , ­ \t\r ‚\r\b
\r€\t\r \b\r \r\r\r \t\r\b,

€\t, \r\t\b \b\n \b, \b\r 
\n­\n  (\r\n ) \b\t\r\b\b\n  \n;
\n \r€\b € \b\b ‚\b 
\b\t \t\b­  \t\rŠ \r \r\r \t
\b\b €\r.
‘\n  \r€\b  €€\b \r\n \b
\b \b‚\b\r:
º\r\b,  \t\r \t\r, \r\t\b 
\n\r. Ž\b  ­  \r€ ‚\r\b,  \t\b\t
\r \t\r\n\r €\t€ \r\n \b\r\b \b\t\b
‚\r\b ­\r\b ­\r\r.
 ­\r \r€ ‚\r\b, \b \b\r \t\r\n
\r €\r­\r\r­\r\b, ‚\b \b\b\b\b\n
\t Š\r\b \t\r\r \b\r \r \t \n
 \t\b\b\b.
„\b\r \b\n­\b  \t\b\t 
\b\b ­\r\r, \b\r\t\r\r \b\n\r\r \t
\b\r \t\r ‚\r\b.
ƒ\b \b‚\b \t ‚\r\r \f\b \r\t
\b­\b\r. „\r\b\r  \t ‚\r\r
 \b \b‚\b \tŠ\b\t\r \b\n\r\tŠ\r\n\r.
‹\rŠ\r\r \t\r, \t‚\r\r \b \r\t\b­\r
\n\t \b\t €\r  
\t\r ‚\r\b \n\r\r \t\r \t \r 
  ‚\b-\f\b­\r \t\b\b €\r.
† \b\f, \t\b\r\r \b \t
 €\r \b \n\t \t\r ‚\r\b:
\b\r \t\r ­\r  \t\b‚\b ‚\b
 \t\r\t\b\b\r, \b\b‚\b\b,  € \t\b\r,
\r\n\r\b\r \t­\b\r \n\b \n\r\r\b\b
\b\b\b  \t­\n  \f\b\n €
\n  \n\t\r\r\b\r \f\b\b, \t\b\t\n\r €\t\b
\n  \b \t;
€ \n-\t\r\r \r\b\r \t\r
\n\b  \b\b \r\b \n\r  ‚\r\r;
€\b\b\b\t\n\r \t‚\r \n\t\r\r\b \t\b\b \r\n
\t Š\r\b, \n\t\n \b\r\t\b 
\b\r\t\r Š\r\b, \n\t\r\r \t‚\r \b
\b \r\n\t\r \r;
\r \n  \t \t\r\r\r\b\b \n
\n\n\t, \t \n\t\r ­\r\r, ‚\b\b \b\t.
  ­\r\b\b  , ­ \n\b \t
\b\b ‚\b \t\r\b \f\r\b­\r\b\b \b\t\b
‚\r\b ‚\b \t\r  €\r, €\n\r
€\r\r­\r \t\r \t\r\r \b\n, ‚\r\b €\r 
\r\t €\n\n \r\t\r \r\b \r\b , €\n\r
€\r\r­\r \t\b\b\r €\r \b

\n\t.
\r\f \n\t\n:
‹\n\t
‰.
š \b Ä\b  \f\r\b Ä\t\b\t \nÆ\n\b\b.
– Œ.: \b\r\t\b\r. 2009.
Œ\n\r
£.
‘\b\r\b \t\b\b.
– Œ.: À\r\b. 2001.
…€\n š\r\t. …ÄŠ\n\b. –Œ.: ‘†Œ…¦. 2000.
ž\n\r
….
…., …\t\r
˜.
ž. •\b.
– ‰.: ž\t\t\b\b.

˜\n\b
….
….
•\b. – ‰.: º\r\t.

Section 10. Economics and management
Section 10. Economics and management
DOI: hp://dx.doi.org/10.20534/EJHSS-17-2-78-81
Deputatova Elena Yuryevna,
Plekhanov Russian University of Economics
Senior Lecturer, Department of Trade policy
E-mail: [email protected]
New trends
cides to buy shampoo or a pencil rather than HP computer
or Apple mobile phone. ese are just dierent situations to
thinkit over as take reasonable time. e traditional process
of making a decisionincludes several steps: problem rise,
search ofinformation, variants comparison, making deci
sion, purchasing.
One more complication to understand a consumeris
understanding whether rational or emotional aspects of mak
ing a decision areinvolved. It was traditionally accepted, that
marketing communications should be transferredinto rational
motives, as consumerisindependentin his choice and such cat
egories as price, quality and range of goods are decisive. Weak
aempts to prove that emotional aspects of thinking overim
portance of purchasing were fantasticallyintroducedin market
ing elds. Neuromarketing and experiential marketing proved
that emotions are the basis of consumer decision. evariety
of consumer behavior became wider [3, 10].
Practical marketing specialists Arndt Traindl, Ber
Shmi, Tom Peters pointed that greatest part of con
sumer thinkingis out of cognition. atis mix ofimpression,
emotions and experience experiential process. Abundance
ofinformative advertising andits decreasing eective eroded
researching of human emotions and nd connection withvi
sual merchandising and logistics. atis a neuromarketing
show-experience, based by the Head of Retail Branding Com
pany, AG Arndt Traindl. Marketing communications can af
fect on motives and consumer decision.
atis why motives can be dividedinto:
rational;
emotional;
combined (whichinclude both rational and emotional).
Psychologists ensure that manisirrationalin his behavior.
at’s why greater part of rational motivesis subconscious.
However combined motives are more popular. Impulse
purchaseis highly emotionalvariant of consumer behavior.
Good’s presentationin shops allows consumers recollect the
list of trademarks he needs or can solve troubles. According to
classical model of making decisions no search ofinformation
was, but rational factors are obvious. Justit took less time.
In-shop equipmentintroduces price and foodvaluesin rep
resentative ways to facilitate consumer’s choicein this endless
assortment choice [2; 5; 8; 11].
To use alternative marketing tools retailersinvolve emo
tional reaction from people which makes rational motives
weaker. e combination of rational and emotional factors of
consumer expression would lead to the right quality service.
According to the timeinuence, modern people are under
the pressure of globalization factors: aer women have goen
equal rights with men, they started working more and receiv
ing high positions. At the same time they have fewer possibili
ties to spend their time for housing, including cooking. Real
izing this fact, retailers oered prepared foods andvariety of
goods which make house duties easier. Above all, women and
men require dierent marketing approaches bothin business-
from product development and promos [10].
More retail enterprises, acting nowadays, modernize mer
chandising technologies, oer new range of goods and ways of
distribution, which allows win more loyal consumers, while
they keep freedomin shopping. On the other hand, obvious
advantages of e
commerce, when consumers can easily getim
portantinformation and choose any good without overcom
ing long distances, allow people to balance between touching
abilities and atmospherein shops. A range of authors corre
spond that changesin marketing area formed new consumer
traditionsin food consumption. Some expensive exotic fruits
which used to be rare on the table and satised emotional
needs, have become traditional nowadays. at means that
emotional reactions of people to pricingvariables and promos
are changing too [6; 8; 10].
Some reasons of alternative marketing communication
within time circumstances are:
lack of unique approach about the structure of promo
tion complex: it depends on aims, competitive positions and
nancial possibilities of enterprise;
standards of quality and culture service, merchandising
technologies go on evaluating;
comprehensive consumers arevery exacting to quality
and service culture;
an abundance ofview points at consumer behavior re
search.
Another trend of consumer behavioris choosingInternet
an alternative way for purchasing.
Facing the facts, 29% of peoplein the world say they pre
fer buying packed products online, whilein Russia only 12%
are ready [13].
«Online» and «o·ine»-purchases are done within sim
ilar period and fewer categories of goods, which consumer
buyin shops only.
Modern societyis characterized by a high level of devel
opment ofinformation and telecommunication technologies
and theirintensive use by citizens, businesses and public au
thorities. eincreasein addedvaluein the economyis today
largely at the expense ofintellectual activity, raising the tech
nological level of production and distribution of modernin
formation and telecommunication technologies [12, P. 69].
According to global AC Nielsen researching, which was
from the 31
of October to 18
0f November 2016among
more than 30000online consumersin 63countries of Asia,
Europe, North America and Africa we will descript the follow
ing results.
e most popular categoriesin answers «prefer
buyinginInternet» are: traveling, hotels (56%), tickets to
actions (46%) and electronics (29%). As for the most popular
answersin «prefer buyingin shops», they are: fresh products
(74%), packed products (66%), housing (55%). Although,
most people answer «prefer buying online and o·ine» for
as kids’ goods (43%), electronics (36%) categories. Such
category as «fresh foods» receives only 7% for «prefer buy
inginInternet» [13].
Nevertheless, when buying FMCG-categories consumers
are still tend to o·ine-channels. eincreasing popularity of
Section 10. Economics and management
the marketin FMCG-industry requires serious work of the
retailer.to ensure complexinformation about production and
terms of delivery which reduces the level of distrust. e main
problem of oering goods through e
commerceis oering at
tractive prices and wide range of products while maintaining
protability for the retailer [7, 10].
Both channels for purchasing online and o·ine are
mutuallyinuenced: to understandvisual characteristics
ofimportant gooditis sometimes highlyimportant to see
and touchit. Only then he can make a decision for buying. It
sometimes happens that rstly one can search for complexin
formation and only then move to the shop.
It goes without saying, thatInternet let use wider channel
to consumer. According to marketing research main factors,
determining wishes to use e
commerce as are following:
freedom: which determines comfort: if making a pur
chaseinInternet, clearinterface and technologies to use are
extremelyimportant;
rate:
during last 10years period of human aention de
creased from 12to 5minutes only;
overcoming distances: multichannel consumer behav
ioris a result of saving free time for road (approximately 34%
in all categories) [13].
As for retail practice, the benets of using e
commerce are
following. As we know, needs and requirements of buyers are
the main factor determining a realized assortment of products.
commerce mechanisms solve this problem easily. It also al
lows the trade organizations to form stock-in-trades on basis
of a consumer choice, usinginformation about behavior of
a consumerin theinternet network. Formation of stock-in-
trades on basis of a consumer choice possesses a number of
advantages for a buyer, as well as for a seller [1, 8, 9]. Quality
and culturein retail service could be main competitive advan
tage as only going shopping consumers are aracted by smiles,
real helpin choosing goods and sympathies. UsingInternet as
a channel of choosing and buying goods consumers receivevi
sualinformation and send questions and details to know. But
face-to-face contactis not that case [6].
e problem to knowis how much people need face-to-
face seller communication and feel the atmosphere andvisual
tricks of merchandising. Marketing specialists are always have to
know whatvalues of their segment are. Tactile communications
followingvisitorsin shops are not researched. However some
goods nd their users when he has an opportunity to takeitinto
the hands. In some cases people extremely need that shoes,
clothing, toys, accessories and many other categories of goods
be presentedin physical evidence. e known rulein merchan
dising as «stretching hand» means that any consumer have a
possibility to own a good for a while and then make a decision of
puingitinto the basket. Remembering the fact that people have
lack of time and want to enjoy their shopping, retailers oervari
ants of tactile presentations whichInternet can’t substitute.
According to wild-known American generation theory
(Neil Houve and William Shtrausse) of «millennium Y
gen
eration», specialistsin retail should notice millennium’s
generationvalues. People, who were born between 1980and
2000will be the greater part (50%) of our Planet. eir pur
chasing poweris approximately 200billion of dollars andval
ues are associated with economical, social, technological and
upbringing factors. Millennium’s generation mostly neglects
direct marketing communications, but can be easilyin
volvedin entertainment or event-marketing. A good example
ofinvolving communicationis McDonnald’s action «Pay with
loving» devoted to St. Valentine’s dayin many countries and
cities. Free foods were oeredin exchange to hugs, dancing
or phoning friends. Such global action allowed famous fast-
food restaurant receive positive commentsin social media.
Common characteristics of «millennium Y
generation» are:
deep engagementin digital technologies, as their lifeis
extremely connected with them;
the lack of trust direct advertising;
neglecting celebrities advertising;
respecting and aention to referent’s group advises;
condence to bloggers, as they represent «common»
people;
spending timein shops as entertainment;
usingInternet to clear loyalty programs conditions;
active usage loyalty programs benets [14].
It goes without saying that retailis a highly social sphere of
economics, asit depends on consumer needs, wishes and pay
able demand. Its goals today are connected with winning con
sumer loyalty ensuring good quality service and entertain at
the same time. Global changesin consumers’ behavior mean
that logistics, marketing, technological and communicating
retail politics have to move to keep up with consumervalues
changes. So, retailis a sphere of economics where changes
are constant. To pick up with all social, cultural, economic
andvalues peculiaritiesin social performances. In a highly
competitive range of retail avariety of foreign and Russian
companies wide are using alternative channels of communi
cation and distribution. e role of segmentationis becom
ing greater and greater as the. Andif earlier brands and their
reputationin the sphere of retail took greater role, nowadays
private labels take higher positions against known brands.
References:
Aleksina
S.
B., Morozova
A.
V., Nikishin
A.
F.
Role of electronic commercein the economic activity of trade organiza
tions//European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences.
– „.31–33.
BaskakovV.
A., LebedevaI.
S.
e specic features of behavior of buyers at the market of everyday goodsin modern condi
tions. e irteenthInternational Conference on Economic Sciences– 2016.
– „.83–85.
Berndt
Schmi. Experiential marketing. How to Get Customers sense, feel, think, act and relate to Your Company and
Brands.
– M.: Fair-Press,
– P. 400.
Engel
J.
F., Blackwell
R.
D., Miniard
P.
Consumer Behavior.
– New York: e Dryden Press.
– P. 10.
Howard
J.
A., Sheth
J.
N.
e eory of Buyer Behavior.
– New York: J Wiley and Sons.
Ivanov
G., Mayorova
E.
Intangible assets and competitive advantagein retail: case study from Russia//Asian Social Sci
ence.
– 2015.
– Œ.11.
– ¥12.
– „.38–45.
Mayorova
E.
A., Nikishin
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F., Pankina
T.
V.
Internet as a factor of development of regional goods distribution/Sustainable
economic development of regions.
– Vienna,
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Maslova
A.
E., Timyasheva
E.
T., Nikishin
A.
F.
Factors that form an aractiveimage of trade organizations//Austrian
Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences.
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Mayorova
E.
A., Nikishin
A.
F., Pankina
T.
V.
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organizations//European science review.
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Zhurkina
L.
S., Ukhanova Ju.
A., Nikishin
A.
F.
Promotional activitiesin trade and dierent ways toimprove them//Austrian
Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences.
– „.157–158.
Leonova Ju.
G.
Peculiarities of performance assessment of a trade organizationin a competitive market//European Journal
of Economics and Management Sciences.
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Ilyashenko
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B., LebedevaI.
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Main directions ofincreasein eciency of electronic commerce//Actual problems of the
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URL: hps://www.retail.ru/articles/140775
URL: hp://themarketcreative.com/retail
tomorrows-shoppers
DOI: hp://dx.doi.org/10.20534/EJHSS-17-2-81-84
Sautieva Tamara Batrbekovna,
Section 10. Economics and management
\t €\r \n­-\r\b­\r\b\b \b\b;
\r\n\t\n  \b\t‚\b  \t€­\r \b [2, 31].
‹ \t\n€\r\rXXI\r \rŠ\r\f\b­\r\b\r \b
\b\rŠ\r\f\b­\r \r\r ˜\b\b \r\t\r\b 
 \r\t\b \n€\b ­\r\r \t\r€\t\b,
 \n\r\r\b\r \t\r \t \b\b \n\r \b
\r\t\b\t\b \b\r\n \b\t\r Š\r\b.
Ž\b \r\r‚\b\b \t\b\b \rŠ\r\f\b
­\r \r\r\b \t\r\r \n\b \n €:
\r\b\r \b\t\b\b\r \f\t \r‚\b
 \t;
2.
\b\b\r \b\t \t\r\b  \r\b­\r
 \r\t\r\r\b;
3.
Š\r\b\r \n\t\r€\b \t\b\b
\t \rŠ\r \t\r \r \r\t\b‚\b\b \t
\b;
\b\r\r\b\r \t\n\n\t \b\t ­¨ \n\r\b­\r\b
\n\r \r \t\n‚\b\b \tŠ\r \t\b
 \t\r ­ \r\b;
€\r\r­\r\b\r \f\b­\r €\r\b \t
­¨ \r\tŠ\r\b \f\t \b\b\t [3, 245].
‹ \r \b\t\b­\r\b \f \t\b\b ˜\b\b \rŠ
\r\f\b­\r \r\r  \b\b\r \t\r
Š\r\b\r \f\b­\r\b \t€\r \t\b­ \n\t:
\t  ‚\r, \r \t\r\b, €‡
\r\b\r\b, \t\r\t\b\b.
 \t\r\r \n\b  \f\b­\r \t\r \t
˜\b\b \t\r\r\r \r, ­ ‚\r\t \r\b ¨ €
Š\r \r\r\b \r\t\r\b \r, \r \t\r\b.
‹\t\r\b \n\t\r, \r  \b\n\t\r
, \t\b\b \r\b\r \b\r \n\t\r\b 
€\r \b\rŠ\r\f\b­\r \r\r\b ­\b
–„\b\r \b\r \t\r\b \b\r\b 
 \r\tŠ\r\n . Ž \r\b­\r
­  ­\r \t\rŠ\r\b\b €\b \b­ \r\t\r\b
­\r\b \b\t\b­\r\b \t€\r \n \b
\t\r\b:
\n­\r \t\r\b\r\b\r \b\r\t\r\r €\b\r
\t‚\r \b\r\r‚\b, \t\r\r \b \f \r\b\r \t
\r\r\b\r \t\b\b\r \b \t\b­\r \r\t\b \f
\b­\r \t\b\b \t;
2.
\r\b\r \t\b \t \b\n­\r
€\b\r \b\r ‚\r\r\t\r \t\b\t
\b \f\b­\r \b‚\b \t\b\b \r
\t\r\b, \b \t\b­ \t\b\t \n\b
\b\t \b \f\b­\r \t\b\b [5, 76–86].
„\r\tŠ\r\b\r \b\t\b\b\r \rŠ\r\f\b­\r
\r\r\b \t\r\b ¢ ˜\b\b \n\b \r\b
\t­ \b\r \b €  \f \r
\b \t \t\r\b \b\r\n \r \t\b\b
\r \f\b\b \t\r\b, \b\r \t. ƒ 
 ­ \r \r \rŠ\r\f\b­\r
\r\r  \r \r\tŠ\r\b\r
\n\t\b\r \t\t‚\b, \t\b\b\r \t\b\b\r
 \b, Š\r\b\r \n\t \b \r\r\b. ˜\rŠ\r\b\r
\f\b \t€\r   \r \t\r\b, €\n  \n
 \b \t\b€\t\r\b  ¢ ˜\b\b.
\rŠ\r\f\b­\r \r\r \n€‡\r \f
\n€ \r\r\t €\t\b \b\r\r \t€\t\n  \b
\b\n \b\t\n\n\t\n,  \b\n\r \r­.
 \n\b \r\b \t­ Š\r\b €
­\b \t \r\r \b \r \t\r\b
˜\b\b \t\b\b  \rŠ\r\f\b­\r \r\r\b.
ƒ \t, \t\r\r \b ‚\b-\f
\b­\r\n  \b\n‚\b  \t\r\b ¢,  \b\r
 \b\r \t\b\r \r‚\b, \r\t \b­\r\r
\r\b\r, \t\b\t-\b\b­\r\b\r \t, \t\r\n\t
 \r‚\b, \r\t \b­\r\b \r‚\b \b\t\n\n\t
\r\r\b, \t\n\n\t \b\r‚\b\b‚\b , €‡\r
\b\t \b\r\b‚\b, \f\t, \r \r\r \n
\t\r \b\b \f\b\n [6, 69–71].
†\r\t‚\b ˜\b ¦\r\r\t‚\b\b \b\t\r \f
\b­\r\r \t\t \t\r\r Š\b\t\r \t\b\b\r
\b \r\r \t\r\b €\b \rŠ\r\f\b­\r
 \t\n\b­\r. \rŠ\b \t \b 
 \r\t\b \t\b €\t\r \t\b­ \t\b 
\n­-\r\b­\r \b\b\r\b‚\b \b\b\b, \t\b\b
\b\r\t\r\b \b \t\b [7, 33–35].
‹\r€\b \r\b \rŠ\r\f\b­\r \b
\b\b \b\rŠ\r\f\b­\r \b\b\b ˜¦ \b\r\r 
­\r \b\n\r \r\b \b\b\b\b  
\r \r \t. ‰\r\b \rŠ\r\f\b
­\r \r\r\b  ­ ‚\r \b\r \t
\b‚\b\b \b\n\t\r\b \r \r \t
\t\b \tŠ\b\t\b \r\n  \r
\r \n­\b \rŠ\r\f\b­\r\b \r. ˆŠ\r
\b\r \t\b \t\r\b \t \r \r\r
\b \t\r\r \b \n­\b\r \rŠ\r\f\b­\r
\r\r\b   \r, \t\r\n\b\t\n \r, \t\b
\b\t\n \r \b\b\n\b\t\n \r •‘ \r\r
\r\t\t\b\t\b\b. Ž\b\r \n€‡\r\b ¦\r\r\t‚\b\b \r
\b \t\b\b\t \r\b \rŠ\b \r \r
Š\b\t\b\r \b \r\b\b \r\r 
\n\t,  ­\b\r \b€\b •‘ [8, 243–254].
˜\t\b­\r\b\r \t\r\r \r\r\b \f \t
€Š\r\b \r\n ¦\r\r\t‚\b\r \b\r\r \n€‡\r\b, 
\t \t\t\b­\r\b\b \r\r‚\b\b \b­\b 
\r Š\r\b \r\n \r\b \b\b \r\r\t
\t \b\t \n€‡\r ¦\r\r\t‚\b\b.
 \t\r\r \r\r\b \t  \b\t\r\b\b\t\n 
 \n‚\b\b \n\t. ‘ €\r\r \n\rŠ \t\r\b‚\b\b
\b \n € \t\t\r\r\r \r\n \n\t ‚\r
(¦\r\r\t‚\b\r) \b\r \b ­\b (\n€‡\r\b ¦\r
\r\t‚\b\b). †\r \b\r \b \b\rŠ\b \t
 \n\t\r \t\b\r \b
\t\t\r\r\r\b  \r\t \r\r\b \t\r\r \r\r\b
˜\b ¦\r\r\t‚\b\b \b\r\r \n€‡\r.
ˆ\r \t\b\b ƒ\b\n‚\b\b ˜¦ 1993. \b
\b\b\r  \r \t\r\b‚\b\r \t\r\r
\r\r\b  ˜\b ¦\r\r\t‚\b\r,  \b\r\r \n€‡\r\b.
„\r \t \f\b \t€\r   \b\t\b \n\r
\r\b\b \r\r\r \t\r \n\t\r\r\b \r\t\b\b \n\t
\r \b.
ˆ\t€\r \t\r\r\r\b \r\r‚\b\b \r\r\t
\t \b \r  \b\b€\r\r 
 € \r\r\t\b \n\t\r. ¦\r\r\t‚\b \r\r
€ \r\t\b­\r\b ­\b\b \n\t\r
\b  \t,  € \r\b \f\b\b ­\b\b
\n€‡\r\b ¦\r\r\t‚\b\b, €\r ­\r \n\t\r 
\r\r \b \r\t\b­\r\b \t\r\t. „\n€‡\r ¦\r
\r\t‚\b\b \b\r\t\r \n\r\b\b \b \r\r
\t \b, \r\r Š\b\t\b\b ­\b\b 
\b \b€\r\r­\r\b €\b \b\r\t\r. ‹\r \t\r
\b \r \n\t\b \r \r\b \b€
\t \t\rŠ \bŠ \t\r\r\r \t \b\b 
\r \r\r\b. • €‡\r\b\r \t\b\t\r­\b\r  €
\r\r\t‚\b\b,  \r\r \b \r \b\b
\t\b \t\t\b­\r\b\r \r\r‚\b\b \n\t\r
\t \r\r\t‚\b\b \b\r\r \n€‡\r [9, 418–423].
‘\r\r \t \n\t\r \b \n€‡
\r ˜\b ¦\r\r\t‚\b\b \n ­\b \t\r\b
\b\b \f\b \t \t\b\b\r \t \n\t.
Ÿ\r\r \t \n€‡\r ˜\b ¦\r\r\t
‚\b\b \r\r \t\r\b\r «\b\r \f» \t
 \b\r.
 \r\r \t\r \n€‡\r ¦\r\r\t‚\b\b \n\r\n 
\t\b­\r \b \bŠ\r\b \r \b\b
\b\r \r, \n­\b \b\r €\r\b \f\b
\n€‡\r ¦\r\r\t‚\b\b. ‹\r\r \t\r\b\r \n\t
\r\r \t\b\r \n\r \t, 
\r ƒ\b\n‚\b\r ˜\b ¦\r\r\t‚\b\b \b¦\r\r\t
 «Ž€€\b \t\b‚\b \t\b‚\b\b \r
 (\t\r\b\r) \b\b\b\r \t \n
\t\r \b \n€‡\r ˜\b ¦\r\r\t‚\b\b».
Ž \f \r­\r \r \n\b \b‚\b\b \t\b‚\b\b
\b \n\t\r \n€‡\r ˜\b ¦\r\r\t‚\b\b. \b
\b‚\b\t \n €  \r \t\b‚\b \r
\r\b \t \b \n€‡\r ˜\b ¦\r\r\t
‚\b\b. „ \b\r \r\r\t\b \n\t \t\r\r
€\t\b\r  \t\rŠ\r\b  \t\r \t
\t\b‚\b\b \b\r \t \n\t\r \b.
Ÿ\r\r \t \n€‡\r ¦\r\r\t‚\b\b €
  ­\b\r €\t ­\b \t\b­
 \r\t \b\b \r\n \r \n€‡\r ˜\b
¦\r\r\t‚\b\b: \t\b‚\b\b \n\t\r \b \b\r
 \n\t\r\b, €\b € \r, \f\b­\r\b
\b \b Š\r\b, €\b \r\r\b,
\t\b\t\b, \t \t\n \r \t\b\t
\t\r, €‡\r \t\b\t, \b\t\b\b \b\n\n\t \b\t.
Ÿ\r\r ­\b €\t\n  \n  
 \n  \r\r‚\b\b \t\r\b\r \t
\n€‡\r ˜\b ¦\r\r\t‚\b\b. †\r \t\r\b‚\b\b
\r ­\b \r \r \t\r
 \r\r\b  \t \n\t\r \b
\n€‡\r ¦\r\r\t‚\b\b.
 \r\b\b ƒ\b\n‚\b\r ˜\b ¦\r\r\t
‚\b\b \r\r\t\r \t \b\b\r \b \b\t
\b\b\r \b \n€‡\r ˜¦ \n \b\n
Š\r\b  \r\t\r \t\n \t\n\n \n\r\r\b\r ­\b
\b ­\b.
ˆ\r\b\r ˆ\t\b\r ˜¦ \t\r\r\r \t
 \b\r\b \b\t\b‚\b\b \r\r\b \t
\b\b\r \b \n€‡\r ˜¦ \b\r\t\t\b\t\b
\t ‰\b\b\r\t \n\t\r\b \r ˜¦, ‰\b\b\r\t
˜¦ \r \t €\t, ­\t\r­ \b\n
‚\b \b\b\b‚\b\b \r\b \b\b €\r\b, ‰\b
\b\r\t  \b‚\b\b ˜¦, ¦\r\r\t \n€ \b\r
\b \b, ¦\r\r\t \n€ \n\r€ \t\b,
\r\r\t \b\b\r\t \b\b \r\r\t \t
\b\b\r \b, \t\n \t\b \n\r
\r ˆ\t\b\r ˜¦, \r\r\t \n€ \b \r\r\t
 \r, \r\r \f\b \b\b\r\t (
\r\r \r\t\t\b\t\b\r \t) [10, 171–174].
\r\f \n\t\n:
„\n\b\r
Œ.
™.
˜ \rŠ\r\f\b­\r\b \r  \t\n\n\t€\t\n \r \t \r \t\r€\t
\b \n\b \t­ \t\r \t//\b \b\t€\r \f\b­\r \t\b\b \t\r\b: ‰\r\t\b
‰\r\n\t \n­-\t\b­\r  \r\t\r‚\b\b.- ‹\r\b: ‹žžŒ†,
„\n\b\r
Œ.
™.
Ž\r \r\r‚\b\b \t\b\b\b \rŠ\r\f\b­\r \r\r\b \n\b \b\r\t‚\b\b
‚\b\b \b€\b‚\b\b \t\b//„‚\b– \f\b­\r\b\r \b\t\r \r \t\b\b ¢¦Ž.
‰\r\t\b
‰\r\n\t \n­-\t\b­\r  \r\t\r‚\b\b.
– ‰– ˆ\b\t: †- «˜†…-ƒ‰»,
„\n\b\r
Œ.
™.
\rŠ\r\f\b­\r \r\r  €‡\r \n\t\r \t\r\n\b\t\b \n\b \b\r\t
‚\b\b‚\b\b \b€\b‚\b\b \t\b//º\r\b \b\b\r\t\r \t\r\r €\r: ‰\r\t\b ‰\r
\n\t \n­-\t\b­\r  \r\t\r‚\b\b, \t\b \tIX \b\r\b ­\r\b €\t\r 2010.,
­III.
– ‰.: †- ˜žŒ•,
„\n\b\r
Œ.
™.
‹\r€\b \n\t\r\b \rŠ\r\f\b­\r \r\r //ƒ 200
\r\b  ƒ‰: \n­\r
\r\t\b «…\n\r \t€\r \f\b\b, \f\b\b, \n\n\t», €\t\b \n­ \r\t\b.
– ˆ\b\t:
†- †•,
„\n\b\r
Œ.
™.
˜\r\b \f\b \b\t\r\b \b\b: \n \t\b\b \t\r\r \f\r//…
\n\r \t€\r \f\b­\r \b‚\b \t\b\b \t\r\r \f\r: ‰\r\t\b \r\t\r\b
\n­-\t\b­\r  \r\t\r‚\b\b.
– ˆ\b\t: †- †•,
Section 10. Economics and management
„\n\b\r
Œ.
™.
ˆ\n\b \b\b‚\b\b \rŠ\r\f\b­\r \r\r\b \t\r\b ¢ ˜\b\b//…\n\r \f
\b­\r\b\r \t€\r ¢ ˜\b\b. „\b\b\nXII.
‰\r\t\bIV ‰\r\n\t \t\r «‰\b\t „\r\r\t
ƒ\r ­\r\t\r \b, €\t\b\r, \n\n\t\n». 21–24\r€\t 2004.
– ˆ\b\t: ˆž›,
„\n\b\r
Œ.
™.
•\b­\r\b\r  \t\b\b \rŠ\r\f\b­\r\b \r ˜\r\n€\b\b „\r\r\t Ž\r\b-…
\b//\r\b ˆž›.
– ˆ\b\t.
„\n\b\r
Œ.
™.
ˆ\t\r  \b\r\b \r\r\t \b\t\r\b \t \n\t\r\b \rŠ\r\f
\b­\r\b Š\r\b \t\r\r ˜\b\b//„€. \n­ \r \r\t\b «ƒ\t\n » «ˆ\t
€\r €\r\r­\r\b \b \b\t\t \t\r\r ˜\b\b».
– ‰– ˆ\b\t: †- «˜†…-
ƒ‰»,
– 2010.
„\n\b\r
Œ.
™.
\rŠ\r\f\b­\r\b\r Š\r\b: \t\t\b­\r\b \t\r\r \r\r\b \t\r\b \b \r
\r\t \n\t//•\b, \n\t \b€\r XXI\r\r: ‰\r\t\b ‰\r\n\t \n­-
\t\b­\r  \r\t\r‚\b\b, \t\b \tIX ˜\n‚\r\b ­\r\b \t\r\r 2011., ­IV.
– ‰.:
†- ˜žŒ•,
„\n\b\r
Œ.
™.
Ÿ\r\r \t \n\t\r \b \b\b \b\b\r \t\b­\r  \r\t \b\b \r
\n \r \n€‡\r ˜\b ¦\r\r\t‚\b\b//‹\r  \f\b\r \b\n\t\r\b\b: ‰\r\t\bIV \r\n
\t \n­-\t\b­\r  \r\t\r‚\b\b.
– ˆ\t: †- «Vedeckovydavatelske entrum « Sociosfera– CZ»,
DOI: hp://dx.doi.org/10.20534/EJHSS-17-2-84-87
TursunovImomnazar,
the Karshi engineering economicsinstitute (Uzbekistan)
Candidate of Economic Sciences, the Department of Management
E-mail: tursunov
[email protected]
Raxmatullaev Anvar,
the Karshi engineering economicsinstitute (Uzbekistan)
Candidate of Economic Sciences, the Department of Economic
E-mail: [email protected]
Berdiyev Abdumalik,
the Karshi engineering economicsinstitute (Uzbekistan)
Candidate of Economic Sciences, the Department of Economics
E-mail: [email protected]
infrastructural maintenance
innovative entrepreneurship
Abstract
: the article deals with the role ofinnovationinfrastructurein establishment of the nationalinnovation
system (NIS). e main problems, which hinder the formation and development of clusters, are presented. e world
experiencein the formation and development ofinnovation small businessis demonstrated. e main components
ofinnovationinfrastructure are classied.
Key words
: innovation policy, innovationinfrastructure, clusters, smallinnovation enterprises (SIE), business
structures.
\b\b ˆ\t\t\r,
\n\n \nƒ
\t\n\n \n\n\b,
\n \t\n\n\f \b,    \tƒ\t
E-mail: tursunov
[email protected]
›\f\t\b ,
\n\n \nƒ
\t\n\n \n\n\b,
\n \t\n\n\f \b,    \t\n\n
E-mail: [email protected]
infrastructural maintenance of
innovative entrepreneurship
ž\n „\n\t\n,
\n\n \nƒ
\t\n\n \n\n\b,,
\n \t\n\n\f \b,    \t\n\n
E-mail: [email protected]
† \n\t\r \n\n \n\r \r\n\r
­ \f \r\t\b\r
:
\r \t\t\b\r \t \b‚\b \b \t\t\n\n\t \r\b\b ‚\b
\b‚\b \b\r (‹†„). ˆ\t\b\r\r \r \t€\r \t\r\n \b\r \t\b\t\b\r \b\t\b\b 
\r\t. ˆ \b\t  \b  \b\t\b\b  \b‚\b  €\b\r. ƒ\b \b‚\b\t
\r  \b\r \b‚\b \b \t\t\n\n\t.
 :
\b‚\b \b\b, \b‚\b \b \t\t\n\n\t, \r\t, \r
\b‚\b\r \t\r\t\b\b (‰†ˆ), \t\r\t\b\b\r\b\r \t\n\n\t
1.
„\r \t\b\t\b\r \t\r\t\b\b\r\b
\t\n\n\t \t\r Š\r\b\r \b \n\t\r
€\b \r \r \b\t\r \r\t‚\b\b, \r‚\b
\b‚\b\b \b\b\r\t‚\b\b, \t\b\b \t\r\t\b Š\r\b.
Ž \b\b\r \r \t €\r, \b‚\b
 \r\r,  \f\b­\r\b \n\b,
€‡\r\b \t\r\t\b \b
\r \t \t\b\b
\f\b­\r\b \t‚\r [3, „.41–50].
 \t‚\r\r \b \n\r \rŠ\r \t\b\b \b
‚\b \t\r\t\b\b\r €\r\b\r, \r \b
 €\b\b \n\b\b\t\n\r \t€\r \t
\b\r \b\r\t‚\b\b \b\r\t‚\b\b  \t\r\t\b\b.
ƒ\t\r , \r\t\r \f\b\b \t  \b \f
\b­\r \t \r\r \b\r \r€\b\b \b\r
\b  \t\b\t\b  \b\t\b\b  \t\r\t\b\b\r
   \t \b‚\b \t\b\b.
 \r\r \t\r Š\b\t \t\t\t\r  \n\t
\r\b \b \b‚\b\b \b\t\b. ‘\r , ­
  \b‚\b \t\r \t\r\t \t
\n\t\r\b, Š\b\t\b \t\t \b­ \b\b‚\b\b, 
 \t\r\r\b \b€ \n­-\r\b­\r \b
\b\b, \b\r \t\b\r­\r\b\r \r \r\r\b 
\b‚\b \b\t. ‰\b\r \b\b  \n\r\r
  \b‚\b \t\t\r, \t\t€\n 
\t\n‚\b\b, \t\t\r\b \r\b.
š\b\t\n  \b\r \n­\b \t\r\r\r\b\r \r
\t\b \f\b ‰.
ˆ\t\r\t, \n\r\t \r,
­ \n\t\r€ ‚\b \n\t\r
\f \r \r\t\b\r \t\b\b\r\b \t\n
€\r\r , ­\r \n\n\t\r, \n\t\r, \b\n
\r\t\r\t \t‚\r \b€\t\r\r\b \b\r\t\r\b \b
‚\b. ƒ\r\t, ˆ\t\r\t\n, «\f \t\n \r\t \b­\r\b
\r\n \b \b \b \b
\b\b \t\b‚\b, \r\n \b \t\r\r\r  \r\t\r
\b\t\r\t\b\n \b €  \r\r\b \b\b
 \b \t\n \t\n» [4, C. 176–177].
Ž€\f \r\b\b  \b\t \b‚\b
\t‚\r\r \b\r\r
\n  \r\n \b\r \r: 
‚\r ‹‚\b \n­  „š…, 
 \r ‹†Žƒ˜ \t \b\t ­\b\r 
100­\r\r \n\r\b ­\r\t\r \t €Š\r 
\r\r\b, ­\r \b\t   100–1000­\r\r
\b24\t €Š\r, ­\r \b\b, \r  \t\rŠ
1000­\r\r. Œ\r \r\r\b \n\b \t\r Š\r,
­\r \n\t\n, \t\r \f, \r€Š\b \b\t \t\r€\n 
 \t\r\r 2,2, ­€ \r\b \b \r\r\b
\t,   \t\n 3,5.
Œ ,  \b\r\r\n\r  „š…, ©
\b\b \b\t 
\r\t\r\b \t \t\b\b  \b
‚\b  €\b\r, €\r
\r­\b ­\b\r
‡\r \f\b\b, \b\r\t\b \b‚\b  \t\b, 
\r \r \b \n\t\r€ \t. ‰
 €\b\r \b \b \r ‚\b\r,
\b\r\n\t\r \t\b. \r\r \t\r  
 \b\t\r\b \b\t \tŠ\r \f\t\r \b
‚\b \t\n‚\b\b ž\r\t\b\b \b‹\b\r\t \r
\t\b\r\t 40%, †\b\b 20–25%, „š… \b©\b\b
ˆ \r\t \b\r \r \r\b\b, 
\t\b,
\r\t \b­\r\b \b \t\b
\r \b\r\t\b \b\t,  ­ \b \b,
\r\r \r\b \b\n-\n, \n \b \t­
\b\b\n \b\r\n \b \t\n \t\n \t
\r\b ‚\r­\b \b \b\b \b\t\r€\b\r\r.
ƒ\r\t \t \t\b‚\b\b \t\b­ \t\r\t\b\b
\r \r\b \n­\b \r \r\n \r\b \r \n­
\b\b \t\b\b \b  € \t \n
 \b‚\b \t\n, \t ‚\r\t\b\t\n\r
\t€\t\r \n­\r \b\r\b­\r\b\r \b€\t\r\r\b,
\t \t\b\t\n \b \b‚\b\b, \r\t‚\b\b‚\b 
\t €\r\r­\b\r \b\r\b\r \n\t\r \t\r\b\n
\r.
ƒ\r\t \t\n\n\t \b\r \t \t\b\r
\b\r\b \b\r\t\r\b\r \r\r\b ­\r \b\b
‚\b\b \t\b\r \t\n\n\t, \n­\b\b \r\t
\n­  \b\r\r \n\t\r\r \t\r\b\n\r.
• \r  €\r\r \f \r\b \t\b\r \n­
\r \t\b \b\b€\t\r\r\b, \r \b \b\r\b\b,
\r \b \n\r \b‚\b\n  \r
\r \r­\r\b\r \t\b\r \t\r\r\b. ­\b
Section 10. Economics and management
\r \t\b\b\r \r\t \r\r\b \b\b \n \b\t
\t\r\t\b\b\r \r\b \r\t\r \b­\b 
\n­ \b \b\t\r\r \r\b— [5,
„.137–142]. ƒ ­\r\n  \t \b‚\b \t\b\r
‚\b\b \r\t \b\t  \b \t\t\n\n\t\r \b\r \b\r
\r\n \b \b \b.
¦\t\b\t\b\r \r\t Š\r \t\r \t\r\r\r
\r€\b \r\tŠ\r\b \b \t\t\n\n\t
€\r\r­\r\b \b‚\b \t\r\t\b\b\r, \b
\b \n­Š\b \t\b \t\b‚\b\b \b \n‚\b\b
\t\b \b\b\n \b \t\t\n\n\t.
ˆ\r\t \f \t\b\t\b \r\t €\t \t\r
\t\b\b, \t\r  \t \r\t. ‹Š 
\b  \b \t\r\t\b\b \r\n \b\r
\r\n \b \t\b\r\t\b:
\t\b\b\r \n\t\r€\n  \t\n‚\b ;
 \b\r €\b, \b \t\b\b \b\b 
\b\r \f\b\b \b‚\b  \r\t \t\r\b;
\b\r \t\b\t\b\r \b \f\b­\r
 \r\r\b \b\n \b\r \r\t \n\t
\r \t \b \b\r \t\b­ \t\t \t
\b\b;
\t\b\t\n \b\r \b \t\t\n\n\t\n \f\b\b, .
\r.
€\r\r­\b \b\r \b\r\b\r \r\n \t\r\t\b\b\b
\t\b­ \b \f\b­\r \r\r\b (\t
\t, , \b \t‚\b\r €\r\r­\r\b\r);
\b\r \b\r  \t\r\b\r\b\t\b 
\b\n­\r\b \b\r\b‚\b \b\t\b­ \b­\b;
\b \b\r \r€\b €\r\b\b 
 .
\t \f \t‚\r \b \r\t \r
 \t\r\r\b\r SWOT-\b €\t \t\r\t\b\b.
ˆ\t\r\r SWOT-\b \t\r\t\b\b, €‡\r\b\r
 \r\t, \b \b \t\r\t\b\b, \t\r
\r\r\n\r  ­  \r\t, \r \r, \t\r
  ­\r\b \b \r\t \n  \t\r\t\n\n\t\b
‚\b\b. ˆ\f\n  ­\b\r \f \t‚\r \b
\r\t \r \t\t€ \r\t\t\b\b \t\r\t\n
\n\t\b‚\b\b \t\r\t\b\b \r‚\b \n­\b
\r\t.
Œ\b €\t, \r\t , \t \r\t
­ \b  \b\r\b \t€\r
\n\t\r€\b, \b \t\r\r\n\r \t\b
\r
\t\b \t\rŠ\r\b\b €\r\r Š\b\t \t\n ­, ­\b, 
 \b\r\b \t\n \b €\b\r, \r
  \b\n\b\t\b \b‚\b \r\r\b
\t\r\t\b\b\r\b \t\n\n\t [6, „.277–281].
„ Š\r ­\b \t\r\b, \t\r\r\r \n\t\r\r
\t\r\b\n\r \t\b­\r\b   €\r\r­\b 
­\r \t\r\b\n\r \r\b \t\b, \n\t
\r\b, \t\b‚\b\b \t\b\r\b \t, \n\rŠ\r \t
\b\b\r \n\t\r€\b \f\b­\r \b\r
 \t\b \r \b\b\b \t\r\r
‚\r‚\b \b‚\b \t\b\b.
†‚\b \f\b \b , 
\r\r\b \n  \f\b­\r \t\b
\b. •\b­\r\b \b\r\t\r \t\r\t\b\b\r\r \b
\t\b\r\b\b \b‚\b, \b‚\b\b \t\r\r  
\rŠ\b\r \t\r\b \t\b\b \t\r\t\b\b\r \r
\r\b. ˆ\f\n \t\rŠ\r\b\r \t€\r \b‚\b
\t \t‚\b\b ‚\b \f\b\b \t\n  
 \b\b\r \t\r\t\b\b\r  \t
\t\b, \r€\b  \t\b‚\b\b \b‚\b
 \t\b \r  \n\t\r, 
\b­ \t €\r\b [7; 8, „.29–31].
\r \n\t\r \b‚\b \b\b\b
 \b\b \b \b\n\t \t\b\b 
€\b\r, \t \r \b­\b \b‚\b, \r
 \t \r\t \b \b\r\b \t\b.
\r\r \t\r  \n\t\r\b \r\t\r­\b \b‚\b
\t\b \r€\b \b \r \b\r \b\r
\b:
\b\n\b\t\b\r \tŠ\r \b 
\b  €\r \n­ \t\r\r\b;
\t\r\b\r \r\t‚\b\b \b\r\t\r \n­\b
 \t\b \t\r\r\b\b \n­ \b\r\b;
\b\r \t\b \n­-\b\r\r\b \b\b\n
\r‚\b \r, \b \b \r\t‚\b\b‚\b\r
\b‚\b \t\t€;
\b  \t \t\n\b­\r \b\b\n
\t
\t€­\b \b\t\n\n\t \t\b­ \r\t \f\b\b
[10, C. 51].
†\r\r\b \t\r \t€ \r  \r
 \b\r \t\r\t\b\b \r\t, \t\r
 \n\b\t \r\n \b €\t [12, C. 176–177].
Œ\r\t\t\b\t\b \b‚\b \t\r\t\b\b: \t
\r €\b\b \t\n \t\n. ‘\r 
  \r\t\r,  \r \b\t\r\t\b\b \b\r\r
  \r\b \t\r\n\t\b, \t\r
\r \b  \r\t\t\b\t\b\b \b€ 
\t\b­\r €\b .
ˆ\t\b\r \t\r\t\b\b  
\t \b\b \t (\t\r\b\r \t\r\r\r
  \r\r\b \t\t\b \f\r\r
\r\t).
‹\b­\b\r \r \r \t\r\t\b\b \t\n \t\n
\r \t \t\r\n\t, \b\t\r \t.
\r \t\r\t\b\b\b \r \n
  \r \r \n‚\b\b\t\b \r\t,
\b\b\r\r\n  \b \b\r\b 
€‡\r,  ­\b\r \r\b \t \b­\r\b
€ \r\b.
\r\f \n\t\n:
ƒ\t\b
…. ˆ\n\b \t\r\r\b \r\b \b\t \t\b\b, \r\t\b‚\b\b \t \b\b\r\b \n\t
\t\b \n\t– Œ.: €\r\b,
– Œ.18,
– „.167.
infrastructural maintenance of
innovative entrepreneurship
š\r\r\r
.
‰.
Ž­\r\t\b \r\t\b\b \t\b\b \t\b\b \t\r\t\b\b\r.
– Œ.: ¦,
– C. 96–101.
š­
.
., ‹\r\n\r
‘.
˜.
„\t\r\r\r ‚\r‚\b\b ‚\r\b \f \r\b\b \n\t\r\b \tŠ\r
\t\r\t\b\b\r//\r\b ƒ \n\t\r \f\r\t\r\b­\r \n\b\r\t\b\r.
– ¥2 (2).
– „.41–50.
Porter
M.
e competitive advantage of nations.
– C. 176–177.
—
….
š., ƒ
ž.
‰., ‰\n\r
¦.
ž.
ƒ\r\t  \b\r\b‚\b\n \t\b\b  \t\r\b//\r\b
™\r\t \n\b\r\t\b\r \r\t‚\b\b, \f\b\b \b\t.
– „.137–142.
š­
.
., ƒ\n\bŠ
„.
‰.
‰\r\b­\r\b\r \t\r\r‚\b\b \t\b‚\b\b \t€ \n\t\r\b  \t\r\n\t
\r‚\b \tŠ\r \t\r\t\b\b//•\b­\r\b\r \n\b.
– „.277–281.
Vedin
N.
V., ShlychkovV.
V., Khasanova
A.Sh. Discursive Practicesin Cooperative Structures//Indian Journal of Science
and Technology. December,
– Vol 8 (S10).
– DOI: 10.17485/ijst/2015/v8iS10/84877.
ƒ\n\bŠ
„.
‰.
ƒ‚\r‚\b \t\r\n\t \r‚\b \t\r\t\b\b  \f\b-\t\b\r \b\r \r
\b\r \b\t\r\n\t //\r\b \f\b\b, \t \b‚\b\b\b.
– „.29–31.
Bersirova
S.
Methodical approaches toidentication and analys of competitive advantageininnovation activity classical
university//Sustainable economic development of regions ed. by L.
Shlossman.
– Vienna,
– „.16–38.
…\r\t
….
¢., ‰\t
.
…\t\r\t   \n\t\r€ \t \t\b‚\b\b \t\b
\b \r\t\r \r \t\b\b \r \r\t\t\b\t\b\b//‹\n­\r €\t\r\b\r.
– „.51.
URL: hp://sputniknews-uz.com/society/20160204/1700793.html
‰\tŠ,
– 1993; ˆ\t\r\t,
– 2001; ˜\t€ \t\r\r\bœ,
– „.176–177; Solvell, Lindquist, Ketels,
Section 1. Archaeology
Jafarova Elmira
Typology of medieval monuments of shirvan (theIX–XIII th centuries)
Section 2. Study of art
Volodeva Natalya Aleksandrovna
Fashion designin modern Kazakhstan: synthesis of traditions and modernity
Section 3. History and archaeology
Kovalev DmitriyVladimirovich
e Dynamics of „ommercialization of Russia’s Agriculturein the Conditions of the NEP
Mukhabbat Khamidova
Studying of Uzbekistan’s architectural monuments at the end ofXIX earlyXX centuries
(on the basis of local archive sources)
Section 4. Cultural studies
Genova Nina Mikhaelovna
Problem of broadcast of spiritual heritage of Russia and national traditions of the people of the
former USSRin Siberia as factor of achievement ofinterethnic concord and counteractions to
extremism (on the example of the Omsk region)
Khaladdin So‰yev
About application of some philosophical conceptsin culture study
Section 5. Linguistics
Gatiba Chingiz Mahmudova
A comparative analysis of the ways of word-formationin modern Azerbaijani and turkish languages
Ibadova Lala
Linguaculturological and LinguaphilosophicalIntegration of Arabism’sinto the System
of Spanish Language
Nikiforova Olena
Military-Political Translationin the Context of the eory of Military Translation
Rahimov Mehdi Nizami
e “Foreigner” imagein Americanism phraseologisms
Hajiyeva Galiba
Traces of anceint sumerian languagein dialect lexics of Azerbaijan
Cherednikova Ekaterina Arkadievna
Reection of Gastronomic DiscourseValuesin the English Paroemiological Corpus
Sharipova Aziza Abdumanapovna
Transformation as a basic conceptin translation (analytical aspects)
Shevchenko Liudmyla
Linguistic and cultural peculiarities ofidioms as cognitive and pragmatic units
Section 6. Pedagogy
Blahun Nataliia Mykhailivna
Evaluation Technologies: the Eectiveness of Social and Functional Managementin EducationInstitutions
Lezha Edit
e role of educational leadershipin school principal’s job strains management
Khasanova Zhamilya Sadikhovna, Kenesh Abdilda Sagadibekuli
e system of social modernizationin conditions of engineering education
CherniavskyŸVasil
Fundamental trainingin the physics of specialistsin the marineindustryin accordance
withinternational requirements
Section 7. Sociology
Peshherov GeorgyIvanovich
e problem of regulation of the social climatein modern society
Hoang Šanh Ha, Pham Manh Ha
Some characteristics of the way of life of workersinindustrial zones ofVietnam
Section 8. Philology
Sevinj Aliyeva
About some compoundverbs which have taken placein the epos of “Kitabi-Dede Korkut”
andin due course have undergone to limited usage
Section 8. Philosophy
.............................................................................
Alimatova Nargis, Kasimov Zafar
Hermeneuticsin the works of Central Asian philosophers
Atavullaev Mirkomil Axmadovich
Socionormative features and philosophical signicance of legalvalues
Baranov GennadiyVladimirovitch
Specics of philosophical paradigms of materialism andidealism
Baranov GennadiyVladimirovitch
Specics of functions of the communication system with the public
Mamatyusupov Bunyodbek Ulubekovich
Moralvalues andits placein spiritual perfection of person
Section 10. Economics and management

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